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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

History: cough
• Do you have a cough? • Tusiti?
• How long have you had it? • De cand?
• Is it a dry cough/a productive cough? • Este o tuse uscata/tuse productiva?
• When is it worse: at night/after • Cand e mai rau: in timpul noptii/dupa
eating? ce mancati?
• Is it painful? • Tusea este dureroasa?
• Does anything precipitate the • Exista ceva care declanseaza tusea,
coughing, such as: dust, pollen, cold, cum ar fi: praful, polenul, frigul,
exercise? efortul fizic?
• Does anything relieve the coughing: • Exista ceva care calmeaza tusea:
sitting upright/cough mixture? pozitia sezand/siropul de tuse?
History: sputum
• Do you bring up any sputum? • Expectorati?
• How much? • Ce cantitate?
• What colour is it? • Ce culoare are sputa?
- White - Alba
- Yellow purulent - Galben-purulenta
- Green - Verde
- Dirty - Cenusie
• Is the smell of the sputum offensive? • Sputa are un miros dezagreabil?
• Show me your sputum cup • Aratati-mi recipientul in care ati
expectorat
History: haemoptysis
• Have you ever coughed up blood? • Ati tusit vreodata cu sange?
• What colour was it? • Ce aspect avea?
- Frothy and pink - Spumos si roz
- Red streaks in the mucus - Mucus cu striuri rosii
- Clots of red blood - Cheaguri de sange rosu
- Clots of black blood - Cheaguri negre
• Since when have you been spitting • De cat timp scuipati sange?
blood? • Ati slabit recent?
• Have you lost weight recently? • Luati anticoagulante?
• Are you on any blood thinners?
History: chest pain
• Do you suffer from chest pain? • Aveti dureri in piept?
• Had you a recent trauma to your • Ati suferit recent un traumatism
chest? thoracic?
• Exacerbating factors: deep • Factori agravanti: inspir profund,
inspiration, coughing, exercise tuse, efort fizic
• Associated factors: fever, cough, • Factori asociati: febra, tuse,
sputum, shortness of breath, expectoratie, dispnee, raguseala,
hoarseness, night sweats, transpiratie nocturna, pierdere
unintentional weight loss neplanificata in greutate
SPIROMETRY
• It measures lung function, specifically the amount (volume) and/or
speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled.
• It is helpful in assessing breathing patterns that identify conditions
such as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, and COPD.
• Indications
Spirometry is used to establish baseline lung function, evaluate
dyspnea, detect pulmonary disease, monitor effects of therapies used
to treat respiratory disease, evaluate respiratory impairment, evaluate
operative risk, and perform surveillance for occupational-related lung
disease.
SPIROMETRY
Contraindications
• Relative contraindications for spirometry include hemoptysis of
unknown origin, pneumothorax, unstable angina pectoris, recent
myocardial infarction, thoracic aneurysms, abdominal aneurysms,
cerebral aneurysms, recent eye surgery (within 2 weeks due to
increased intraocular pressure during forced expiration), recent
abdominal or thoracic surgical procedures, and patients with a history
of syncope associated with forced exhalation.
• Patients with active tuberculosis should not be tested.