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Chemical

Digestion
Science : Biology : Digestion
Digestion refers to the breaking down of large food
molecules into smaller food molecules in the body.
So that small food molecules can diffuse through the
walls and enter bloodstream.
Starch and proteins are large food molecules that cannot
pass through the walls.
Nutrients

 Body needs energy to do work.


 Nutrients include
 Carbohydrates
 Provide energy (growth, warmth, movement)

 Proteins
 For growth of cells and tissues
 Repair of damaged tissues.
 Source of energy if carbohydrates and fats unavailable
Nutrients

 Nutrients include
 Fats
 Provide energy
 Two times that of carbohydrates

 Nutrients help
 in our growth,
 by keeping us healthy,
 by repairing our cells and tissues,
 by giving us energy.
Enzymes : their role

 Enzymes are used to digest food


 Carbohydrase / Amylase
 Carbohydrates to Simple sugars

 Protease
 Proteins to Amino acids

 Lipase
 Fats to Glycerol and Fatty acids
Alimentary canal, organs and functions

Alimentary canal consists of the


Mouth (20sec)
Starch (carbohydrate) is digested to maltose by carbohydrase / amylase
Oseophagus (10sec)
Walls of the alimentary canal are made of muscles which squeezes food
along the canal.
Stomach (2-6hrs)
Produces gastric juice which mixes food when stomach churns.
Protease in the juice breaks down complex proteins into simpler ones
Organs joined to the Alimentary canal

 Liver
 Makes bile
 Greenish liquid which emulsifies fats, breaking them into smaller droplets, easier for lipase to digest it.

 Gall bladder
 Stores bile
 Pancreas
 Creates pancreatic juice
 Flows to small intestine and contain enzymes
Alimentary canal, organs and functions

 Small intestine (5hrs)


 Produces intestinal juice which contains enzymes
 Completes the digestion process with the help of the organs joined to the alimentary canal.
Alimentary canal, organs and functions

Digestion ends at the small intestine:


Small molecules of digested food passes through the small


intestine wall, into the bloodstream surrounding it.
Digested food enters blood

 Digested food
 Made of small food molecules
 Diffuse through walls of small intestine
 Into blood vessels in walls
 Carried away by blood the rest of the body
 Called absorption of food

 Blood carries the small food molecules to the cells of the body where they can be used.
Easier absorption

 Finger-like villi
 Provides large surface area
 Folds the cell membrane
 7 m-long small intestine
 Increases surface area
 One-cell thick small intestine
 Shortens distance between wall and bloodstream
Alimentary canal, organs and functions

 Alimentary canal consists of the


 Large intestine and anus (24hrs)
 Undigested food reaches the large intestine
 Lots of water is removed and taken back into the body
 Pass out through anus as faeces
Summary : Digestion of foods

Nutrients in foods
Carbohydrates and fats are used for respiration and as sources
of energy.
Proteins are used for growth and the repair of body tissues.
Starch and glucose are two kinds of carbohydrates.
Why digestion is needed
Only small molecules are able to pass through cell membranes
into cells.
Starch, fat and protein molecules are too large to pass through.
Summary : Digestion of foods
 Meaning of digestion

Digestion is the breaking down of large food molecules in the body into small
food molecules.
The small food molecules are: glucose (from starch), amino acids (from proteins)
and glycerol and fatty acids (from fats).
Digestion takes place by the action of enzymes.
Summary : Digestion of foods

The alimentary canal and digestion


Mouth
Digestion of starch begins here.
Stomach
Digestion of proteins begins here.
Small intestine
Most digestion takes place here.
Digestion of starch and proteins is completed here.
Digestion of fats takes place only in the small intestine. Absorption of digested food
The small, digested food molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of
the small intestine.
The villi of the small intestine increase the surface area for faster absorption of small,
digested food molecules.
The main nutrients the body needs are:

Carbohydrates for energy;


 proteins for growth and repair;
 fats to store energy;
 vitamins and minerals to keep
the body healthy.
Enzymes
-are globular proteins that
control biological reactions.
Digestive enzymes speed up
the breakdown (hydrolysis) of
food molecules into their
‘building block’ components.
Digestive enzymes

Digestive enzymes are the chemicals that break large


insoluble food molecules into smaller soluble molecules.
Starchy foods contain carbohydrates which are made of
long chains of identical small sugar molecules.

Carbohydrates carbohydrate
are broken down molecule

into the smaller


sugar molecules
to be used by one sugar
molecule
the body for
energy.
Mouth
Salivary Amylase- a

Amylase
digestive enzyme that
acts on starch in food, Long carbohydrate molecule

breaking it down into


smaller carbohydrate
molecules in the form of
maltose.
Simple sugar molecules
Proteins, like carbohydrates, are made of long chains of small
molecules. In proteins, these small molecules are
not identical.

protein one
molecule amino
acid

Proteins are made up of chains of small molecules called


amino acids. There are over 20 different kinds of amino
acid.
Proteins are used by the body for growth and repair.
Stomach
Protease- any enzyme
that breaks down

protease
protein into its building Long protein molecule

blocks, the amino


acids. Three main
proteases are pepsin,
trypsin and
chymotrypsin.
Amino acid molecules
Fats are made up of fat molecules which contain fatty
acids and glycerol.

fat fatty
molecule acids

glycerol

Fat molecules have to be broken down by the body


so that they can be used for energy storage.
Small Intestine

Lipase
Lipase - the enzyme fat molecule

responsible in
breaking fats into
fatty acids and
glycerol.
glycerol

fatty acids
Fats are digested in two stages:
Firstly, bile (released by the gall bladder) allows the fat to
“mix” with water by breaking the fat into smaller droplets.
This is called emulsification.

bile

Secondly, the digestive enzyme lipase breaks each fat


molecule into the smaller glycerol fatty acid molecules .

Lipase +
fat molecule fatty
glycerol acids
Small Intestine
Nuclease - this enzyme play crucial
roles in various DNA repair processes,
which involve DNA replication, base
excision repair, nucleotide excision
repair, mismatch repair, and double
strand break repair. The end product
will be pentoses, phosphates,
nitrogenous bases which mainly the
chemical structure of our DNA.
Enzymes Produces in Site of Release pH level

Carbohydrate Digestion:

Salivary amylase Salivary glands Mouth Neutral


Pancreatic amylase Pancreas Small Intestine Basic
Maltase Small Intestine Small Intestine Basic

Protein Digestion:

Pepsin Gastric glands Stomach Acidic


Trypsin Pancreas Small Intestine Basic
Peptides Small Intestine Small Intestine Basic

Nucleic Acid Digestion:

Nuclease Pancreas Small Intestine Basic


Nucleosidases Pancreas Small Intestine Basic

Fat Digestion:

Lipase Pancreas Small Intestine Basic