You are on page 1of 31

Lecture 4:

Delay

1. Delay definition
2. Transient response
3. RC delay models
4. Linear delay models
1. Delay Definitions
 tpdr: rising propagation delay
– From input to rising output
crossing VDD/2
 tpdf: falling propagation delay
– From input to falling output
crossing VDD/2
 tpd: average propagation delay
– tpd = (tpdr + tpdf)/2
 tr: rise time
– From output crossing 0.2
VDD to 0.8 VDD
 tf: fall time
– From output crossing 0.8
VDD to 0.2 VDD

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 2


1. Delay Definitions
 tcdr: rising contamination delay
– From input to rising output crossing VDD/2
 tcdf: falling contamination delay
– From input to falling output crossing VDD/2
 tcd: average contamination delay
– tpd = (tcdr + tcdf)/2

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 3


Arrival time
 Arrival time is the latest time at which each node in a block of logic
will switch
 The slack is the difference between the required and arrival times.
 Positive slack means that the circuit meets timing.
 Negative slack means that the circuit is not fast enough.

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 4


2. Transient Response
 DC analysis tells us Vout if Vin is constant
 Transient analysis tells us Vout(t) if Vin(t) changes
– Requires solving differential equations
 Input is usually considered to be a step or ramp
– From 0 to VDD or vice versa

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5


DC Response
 DC Response: Vout vs. Vin for a gate
 Ex: Inverter
– When Vin = 0 -> Vout = VDD
– When Vin = VDD -> Vout = 0
VDD
– In between, Vout depends on
transistor size and current Idsp
Vin Vout
– By KCL, must settle such that Idsn
Idsn = |Idsp|
– We could solve equations
– But graphical solution gives more insight

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 6


Transistor Operation
 Current depends on region of transistor behavior
 For what Vin and Vout are nMOS and pMOS in
– Cutoff?
– Linear?
– Saturation?

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 7


Inverter Step Response
 Ex: find step response of inverter driving load cap
Vin (t )  u(t  t0 )VDD
Vin(t)
Vout (t  t0 )  VDD Vout(t)
Cload
dVout (t ) I dsn (t )
 Idsn(t)
dt Cload
Vin(t)

 0 t  t0

I dsn (t )   
   Vout  VDD  Vt
2
2 V DD V Vout(t)
 t
  VDD  Vt  out 2  V (t ) V  V  V
V (t )
 out t0
  
out DD t

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 8


Simulated Inverter Delay
 Solving differential equations by hand is too hard
 SPICE simulator solves the equations numerically
– Uses more accurate I-V models too!
 But simulations take time to write, may hide insight
2.0

1.5

1.0
(V)
tpdf = 66ps tpdr = 83ps
Vin
Vout
0.5

0.0

0.0 200p 400p 600p 800p 1n


t(s)

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 9


Delay Estimation
 We would like to be able to easily estimate delay
– Not as accurate as simulation
– But easier to ask “What if?”
 The step response usually looks like a 1st order RC
response with a decaying exponential.
 Use RC delay models to estimate delay
– C = total capacitance on output node
– Use effective resistance R
– So that tpd = RC
 Characterize transistors by finding their effective R
– Depends on average current as gate switches

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 10


Effective Resistance
 Shockley models have limited value
– Not accurate enough for modern transistors
– Too complicated for much hand analysis
 Simplification: treat transistor as resistor
– Replace Ids(Vds, Vgs) with effective resistance R
• Ids = Vds/R
– R averaged across switching of digital gate
 Too inaccurate to predict current at any given time
– But good enough to predict RC delay

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 11


3. RC Delay Model
 Use equivalent circuits for MOS transistors
– Ideal switch + capacitance and ON resistance
– Unit nMOS has resistance R, capacitance C
– Unit pMOS has resistance 2R, capacitance C
 Capacitance proportional to width
 Resistance inversely proportional to width
d
s
kC
kC
R/k
d 2R/k
d
g k g kC
g k g
s kC kC
kC s
s
d

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 12


RC Values
 Capacitance
– C = Cg = Cs = Cd = 2 fF/mm of gate width in 0.6 mm
– Gradually decline to 1 fF/mm in nanometer techs.
 Resistance
– R  6 KW*mm in 0.6 mm process
– Improves with shorter channel lengths
 Unit transistors
– May refer to minimum contacted device (4/2 l)
– Or maybe 1 mm wide device
– Doesn’t matter as long as you are consistent

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 13


Inverter Delay Estimate
 Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter
2C

2C 2C
2C 2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1 R C
C
R C C

d = 6RC

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 14


Delay Model Comparison

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 15


Example: 3-input NAND
 Sketch a 3-input NAND with transistor widths chosen to
achieve effective rise and fall resistances equal to a unit
inverter (R).

2 2 2

3
3

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 16


3-input NAND Caps
 Annotate the 3-input NAND gate with gate and diffusion
capacitance.

2C 2C 2C
2C 2C 2C
2 2 2
2C 2C 2C
9C
3 3C
5C 3C
3C
3
5C 3C
3C
3
5C 3C
3C

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 17


Elmore Delay
 ON transistors look like resistors
 Pullup or pulldown network modeled as RC ladder
 Elmore delay of RC ladder
t pd  
nodes i
Ri to sourceCi

 R1C1   R1  R2  C2  ...   R1  R2  ...  RN  CN


R1 R2 R3 RN

C1 C2 C3 CN

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 18


Example: 3-input NAND
 Estimate worst-case rising and falling delay of 3-input NAND
driving h identical gates.
2 2 2 Y
3 9C 5hC
n2
3 n1 3C
h copies
3 3C

t pdr  9  5h C R   3C R   3C R  t pdf  (3C )( R3 )  (3C )( R3  R3 )  9  5h C ( R3  R3  R3 )
 15  5h RC  12  5h RC

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 19


Delay Components
 Delay has two parts
– Parasitic delay
• 15 or 12 RC
• Independent of load
– Effort delay
• 5h RC
• Proportional to load capacitance

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 20


Contamination Delay
 Best-case (contamination) delay can be substantially less than
propagation delay.
 Ex: If all three inputs fall simultaneously

2 2 2 Y
3 9C 5hC
n2
3 n1 3C

3 3C

R  5 
tcdr   9  5h  C      3  h  RC
3  3 

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 21


Diffusion Capacitance
 We assumed contacted diffusion on every s / d.
 Good layout minimizes diffusion area
 Ex: NAND3 layout shares one diffusion contact
– Reduces output capacitance by 2C
– Merged uncontacted diffusion might help too
2C 2C
Shared
Contacted
Diffusion Isolated
Contacted 2 2 2
Merged Diffusion
Uncontacted 3 7C
Diffusion 3 3C

3C 3C 3C 3 3C

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 22


Isolated/Shared/Merged Diffusion
 Shared contacted diffusion can reduce the diffusion capacitance
 Un-contacted diffusion nodes can reduce more capacitance

Isolated Shared Merged

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 23


Layout Comparison
 Which layout is better?

VDD VDD
A B A B

Y Y

GND GND

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 24


4. Linear delay models
 The normalized delay of a gate: d = f + p
– p is the parasitic delay
– f is the effort delay: f = gh
– g is logical effort
– h is electrical effort (fanout): h = Cout/Cin

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 25


Logical Effort
 Logical Effort is defined as the ratio of the input
capacitance of the gate to the input capacitance of
an inverter that can deliver the same output current.

Logical effort of common gates


Gate type Number of Inputs
1 2 3 4 n
Inverter 1
NAND 4/3 5/3 6/3 (n+2)/3
NOR 5/3 7/3 9/3 (2n+1)/3
Tristate, 2 2 2 2 2
multiplexer

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 26


Parasitic Delay
 The parasitic delay of a gate is the delay of the gate
when it drives zero load

Parasitic delay of common gates


Gate type Number of Inputs
1 2 3 4 n
Inverter 1
NAND 2 3 4 n
NOR 2 3 4 n
Tristate, 2 4 6 8 2n
multiplexer

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 27


Parasitic Delay
 Parasitic Delay for n-input NAND gate

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 28


Example
 Use the linear delay model to estimate the delay of
the fanout-of-4 (FO4) inverter. Assume the inverter
is constructed in a 65 nm process with  = 3 ps.

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 29


Summary of logical Effort

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 30


Review
1. What are tpdr, tpdf, tf, tr, tcdr, tcdf?
2. Calculate arrive time of the following circuit:

20
10 40 30
30 40
3. Explain the delay estimation of a fanout-of-1 inverter (slide 14)
4. Explain the tpdr and tpdf delay estimation of 3-input NAND
driving h identical gates (slide 19).
5. Estimate delay for the gates: AOI21, OAI31
6. What is logical effort?
7. What is parasitic delay?
8. Estimate the delay of the following gate:
5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 31