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Delay

1. Delay definition

2. Transient response

3. RC delay models

4. Linear delay models

1. Delay Definitions

tpdr: rising propagation delay

– From input to rising output

crossing VDD/2

tpdf: falling propagation delay

– From input to falling output

crossing VDD/2

tpd: average propagation delay

– tpd = (tpdr + tpdf)/2

tr: rise time

– From output crossing 0.2

VDD to 0.8 VDD

tf: fall time

– From output crossing 0.8

VDD to 0.2 VDD

1. Delay Definitions

tcdr: rising contamination delay

– From input to rising output crossing VDD/2

tcdf: falling contamination delay

– From input to falling output crossing VDD/2

tcd: average contamination delay

– tpd = (tcdr + tcdf)/2

Arrival time

Arrival time is the latest time at which each node in a block of logic

will switch

The slack is the difference between the required and arrival times.

Positive slack means that the circuit meets timing.

Negative slack means that the circuit is not fast enough.

2. Transient Response

DC analysis tells us Vout if Vin is constant

Transient analysis tells us Vout(t) if Vin(t) changes

– Requires solving differential equations

Input is usually considered to be a step or ramp

– From 0 to VDD or vice versa

DC Response

DC Response: Vout vs. Vin for a gate

Ex: Inverter

– When Vin = 0 -> Vout = VDD

– When Vin = VDD -> Vout = 0

VDD

– In between, Vout depends on

transistor size and current Idsp

Vin Vout

– By KCL, must settle such that Idsn

Idsn = |Idsp|

– We could solve equations

– But graphical solution gives more insight

Transistor Operation

Current depends on region of transistor behavior

For what Vin and Vout are nMOS and pMOS in

– Cutoff?

– Linear?

– Saturation?

Inverter Step Response

Ex: find step response of inverter driving load cap

Vin (t ) u(t t0 )VDD

Vin(t)

Vout (t t0 ) VDD Vout(t)

Cload

dVout (t ) I dsn (t )

Idsn(t)

dt Cload

Vin(t)

0 t t0

I dsn (t )

Vout VDD Vt

2

2 V DD V Vout(t)

t

VDD Vt out 2 V (t ) V V V

V (t )

out t0

out DD t

Simulated Inverter Delay

Solving differential equations by hand is too hard

SPICE simulator solves the equations numerically

– Uses more accurate I-V models too!

But simulations take time to write, may hide insight

2.0

1.5

1.0

(V)

tpdf = 66ps tpdr = 83ps

Vin

Vout

0.5

0.0

t(s)

Delay Estimation

We would like to be able to easily estimate delay

– Not as accurate as simulation

– But easier to ask “What if?”

The step response usually looks like a 1st order RC

response with a decaying exponential.

Use RC delay models to estimate delay

– C = total capacitance on output node

– Use effective resistance R

– So that tpd = RC

Characterize transistors by finding their effective R

– Depends on average current as gate switches

Effective Resistance

Shockley models have limited value

– Not accurate enough for modern transistors

– Too complicated for much hand analysis

Simplification: treat transistor as resistor

– Replace Ids(Vds, Vgs) with effective resistance R

• Ids = Vds/R

– R averaged across switching of digital gate

Too inaccurate to predict current at any given time

– But good enough to predict RC delay

3. RC Delay Model

Use equivalent circuits for MOS transistors

– Ideal switch + capacitance and ON resistance

– Unit nMOS has resistance R, capacitance C

– Unit pMOS has resistance 2R, capacitance C

Capacitance proportional to width

Resistance inversely proportional to width

d

s

kC

kC

R/k

d 2R/k

d

g k g kC

g k g

s kC kC

kC s

s

d

RC Values

Capacitance

– C = Cg = Cs = Cd = 2 fF/mm of gate width in 0.6 mm

– Gradually decline to 1 fF/mm in nanometer techs.

Resistance

– R 6 KW*mm in 0.6 mm process

– Improves with shorter channel lengths

Unit transistors

– May refer to minimum contacted device (4/2 l)

– Or maybe 1 mm wide device

– Doesn’t matter as long as you are consistent

Inverter Delay Estimate

Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

2C

2C 2C

2C 2C

2 Y 2

A Y

1 1 R C

C

R C C

d = 6RC

Delay Model Comparison

Example: 3-input NAND

Sketch a 3-input NAND with transistor widths chosen to

achieve effective rise and fall resistances equal to a unit

inverter (R).

2 2 2

3

3

3-input NAND Caps

Annotate the 3-input NAND gate with gate and diffusion

capacitance.

2C 2C 2C

2C 2C 2C

2 2 2

2C 2C 2C

9C

3 3C

5C 3C

3C

3

5C 3C

3C

3

5C 3C

3C

Elmore Delay

ON transistors look like resistors

Pullup or pulldown network modeled as RC ladder

Elmore delay of RC ladder

t pd

nodes i

Ri to sourceCi

R1 R2 R3 RN

C1 C2 C3 CN

Example: 3-input NAND

Estimate worst-case rising and falling delay of 3-input NAND

driving h identical gates.

2 2 2 Y

3 9C 5hC

n2

3 n1 3C

h copies

3 3C

t pdr 9 5h C R 3C R 3C R t pdf (3C )( R3 ) (3C )( R3 R3 ) 9 5h C ( R3 R3 R3 )

15 5h RC 12 5h RC

Delay Components

Delay has two parts

– Parasitic delay

• 15 or 12 RC

• Independent of load

– Effort delay

• 5h RC

• Proportional to load capacitance

Contamination Delay

Best-case (contamination) delay can be substantially less than

propagation delay.

Ex: If all three inputs fall simultaneously

2 2 2 Y

3 9C 5hC

n2

3 n1 3C

3 3C

R 5

tcdr 9 5h C 3 h RC

3 3

Diffusion Capacitance

We assumed contacted diffusion on every s / d.

Good layout minimizes diffusion area

Ex: NAND3 layout shares one diffusion contact

– Reduces output capacitance by 2C

– Merged uncontacted diffusion might help too

2C 2C

Shared

Contacted

Diffusion Isolated

Contacted 2 2 2

Merged Diffusion

Uncontacted 3 7C

Diffusion 3 3C

3C 3C 3C 3 3C

Isolated/Shared/Merged Diffusion

Shared contacted diffusion can reduce the diffusion capacitance

Un-contacted diffusion nodes can reduce more capacitance

Layout Comparison

Which layout is better?

VDD VDD

A B A B

Y Y

GND GND

4. Linear delay models

The normalized delay of a gate: d = f + p

– p is the parasitic delay

– f is the effort delay: f = gh

– g is logical effort

– h is electrical effort (fanout): h = Cout/Cin

Logical Effort

Logical Effort is defined as the ratio of the input

capacitance of the gate to the input capacitance of

an inverter that can deliver the same output current.

Gate type Number of Inputs

1 2 3 4 n

Inverter 1

NAND 4/3 5/3 6/3 (n+2)/3

NOR 5/3 7/3 9/3 (2n+1)/3

Tristate, 2 2 2 2 2

multiplexer

Parasitic Delay

The parasitic delay of a gate is the delay of the gate

when it drives zero load

Gate type Number of Inputs

1 2 3 4 n

Inverter 1

NAND 2 3 4 n

NOR 2 3 4 n

Tristate, 2 4 6 8 2n

multiplexer

Parasitic Delay

Parasitic Delay for n-input NAND gate

Example

Use the linear delay model to estimate the delay of

the fanout-of-4 (FO4) inverter. Assume the inverter

is constructed in a 65 nm process with = 3 ps.

Summary of logical Effort

Review

1. What are tpdr, tpdf, tf, tr, tcdr, tcdf?

2. Calculate arrive time of the following circuit:

20

10 40 30

30 40

3. Explain the delay estimation of a fanout-of-1 inverter (slide 14)

4. Explain the tpdr and tpdf delay estimation of 3-input NAND

driving h identical gates (slide 19).

5. Estimate delay for the gates: AOI21, OAI31

6. What is logical effort?

7. What is parasitic delay?

8. Estimate the delay of the following gate:

5: DC and Transient Response CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 31

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