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SEMINAR PRESENTATION ON FREEZE DRYING

PRSENTED BY
MICHAEL PURTY
REGD NO. 1401327087
GUIDED BY
ASST. PROF SURYAKANT PARIDA
DEPT. OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
HI-TECH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CONTENT
1. INTRODUCTION
2. PURPOSE
3. PHASE OF FREEZE DRYING
4. METHOD OF FREEZE DRYING
5. WORKING PRINCIPLE
6. ADVANTAGE
7. DISADVANTAGE
8. APPLICATION
9. CONCLUSION
10. REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
Freeze Drying is the process in which water is removed from a
product after it is frozen and placed under a vacuum allowing the
ice to change directly from solid to vapor without passing
through a liquid phase.
Freeze Drying is the process of removing moisture from
a frozen product using vacuum.
The rate of freeze is dependent on temperature and
pressure.
PURPOSE OF FREEZE DRYING
Removing water keeps food from spoiling for a long
period of time.
Freeze drying significantly reduces the weight of the
food.
Freeze Drying preserves the integrity of the product’s
biological and chemical structure and activity.
PHASES OF FREEZE DRYING
Freeze drying process consist of three phases
1. Freezing
2. Primary drying
3. Secondary drying
FREEZING
During the freezing phase the goal is to freeze the mobile water of the
product.
The rate of cooling will influence the structure of the frozen matrix.
Another important term related to freezing is eutectic point.
SHELL FREEZING
Increases the surface area to volume ratio by spreading out the frozen product
inside the vessel.
PRIMARY DRYING
In this phase the chamber pressure is reduced and heat is applied to
cause the frozen mobile water to sublimation.
It is important to control the drying rate and heating rate during this
phase.
PRIMARY DRYING (CONTINUED..)

Process Requires:

Prefrozen sample
Temperature difference between sample and collector
establishes a vapor pressure differential. (collector should
be 15-20° colder than the sample ).
Heat applied to the sample.
High vacuum
A Vacuum Pump encourages the free flow of water
molecules from the product by evacuating the environment
around the product. It removes non-condensable gases.
SECONDARY DRYING
The length of the secondary drying process will be
determined by the product.
The water content may be carefully cotrolled.
The process of reducing the 7- 8% residual moisture
content still present in the visually dry sample.
SECONDARY DRYING (CONTINUED..)

. Isothermal desorption is the removal of bound


water from a sample.
. Requires a temperature higher than ambient and
1/3-1/2 the time necessary for primary drying.
. Secondary drying is normally continued at a
product temperature higher than ambient but
compatible with the sensitivity of the product.
METHOD OF FREEZE DRYING
1. Manifold method
2. Batch method
3. Bulk method
MANIFOLD METHOD
• IN THE MANIFOLD METHOD, FLASKS AMPOULE
OR VIALS ARE INDIVIDUALLY ATTACHED TO THE
PARTS OF A DRYING CHAMBER.
• THE PREFROZEN PRODUCT IS QUICKLY ATTACHED
TO THE DRYING CHAMBER OR MANIFOLD TO
PREVENT WARMING.
• THE VACUUM MUST BE CREATED IN THE
PRODUCT CONTAINER QUICKLY AND THE
OPERATOR RELIES ON EVAPORATIVE COOLING TO
MAINTAIN THE LOW TEMPERATURE OF THE
PRODUCT.
• THIS PROCEDURE CAN ONLY BE USED FOR
RELATIVELY SMALL VOLUME AND PRODUCT WITH
HIGH EUTECTIC AND COLLAPSE TEMPERATURES.
BATCH METHOD
• IN BATCH METHOD DRYING LARGES NUMBER
OF SIMILAR SIZE VESSELS CONTAINING LIKE
PRODUCT ARE PLACED TOGETHER IN A TRAY
DRYER.
• THE PRODUCT IS USUALLY PREFROZEN ON
THE SHELF OF THE TRAY DRYER.
• BATCH DRYER IS USED TO PREPARE LARGE
NUMBERS OF VIALS OF ONE PRODUCT AND IS
COMMONLY USED IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL
INDUSTRY.
BULK METHOD
• BULK DRYING IS GENERALLY CARRIED OUT IN
A TRAY DRYER LIKE BATCH DRYING.
• HOWEVER THE PRODUCT IS POURED INTO A
BULK PAN AND DRIED AS A SINGLE UNIT.
• ALTHOUGH THE PRODUCT IS SPREAD
THROUGH OUT THE ENTIRE SURFACE AREA OF
THE SHELF AND MAY BE THE SAME THICKNESS
AS PRODUCT IN VIALS, THE LACK OF EMPTY
SPACES WITHIN THE PRODUCT MASS
CHANGES THE RATE OF HEAT INPUT.
• THE HEAT INPUT IS LIMITED PRIMARILY TO
THAT PROVIDED BY CONTACT WITH THE SHELF.
WORKING PRINCIPLE
Mainly the freeze dryer
consists of 3 parts

•Freeze drying
chamber
•Refrigeration coils
•Vacuum pump
WORKING (Contd…)
Place the material to be preserved on the shelf when it is still unfrozen.
Seal the chamber and process begins.
Compressor lowers the temp and freezes the material and water is
seperated.
Vacuum pump forces air out of chamber and lowers the atmospheric
pressure to 0.06 atm.
WORKING (Contd…)
Small heat applied for ice to change phase.
Due to low pressure ice turns directly to water vapour and it flows out
of chamber.
Water vapour condenses in freezing coil to solid ice.
Process continues till material dries out.
WORKING (Contd…)
Sublimation process accelerated to avoid overheating.
Once dried sufficiently – sealed in moisture free packages.
As long as package is secure it can sit without degrading for years and
years.
ADVANTAGES
1.Preserves color, aroma, taste, shape.
2.Transportation doesn’t require freezers.
3.Last long.
4.Easy packing.
5.Provide high quality product.
DISADVANTAGES
1.Increased handling and processing time.
2.Very costlier process.
3.Fire hazards if the chamber is not in proper vacuum, while heater is
on.
APPLICATION
1.In pharmaceutical companies.
2.Food industries.
3.In flower industries.
4.For protecting old books.
CONCLUSION
1.The process is much cheaper for pharmaceuticals.
2.Cost mainly depends on engineering skills and
techniques.
3.Quality of the product is very high.
REFERENCES
Http://home.Howstuffworks.Com/freeze-drying1.Htm
Singh, R. Paul and dennis held man. Introduction to food
engineering. Academic press, Boston. 2001. Pp567-8.
Http://www.Foodsci.Wisc.Edu/courses/fs532/12freezedryin
g.Php
Http://www.Cheng.Cam.Ac.Uk/research/groups/biosci/lyop
hilisation/images/fdstatic.Jpg
https://en.m.wikipediya.org
THANK YOU