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Gp Cpt Abdus Salam

AIRCRAFT ANTISKID
SYSTEM
Antiskid system
• Antiskid system is a feature found in high performance aircraft
braking system. It is important because if a wheel goes into
skid, its braking value is greatly reduced.
• The skid control system performs four functions:
i. normal skid control,
ii. locked wheel skid control,
iii. touchdown protection and
iv. fail-safe protection.
Introduction
• One solution to preventing the tires from skidding is by
modulating the brake pressure that is being applied to the
brake, so that some of that pressure is returned to the system
and thus the brake pressure is reduced at the brake and the
wheel will spin back up (i.e. stop skidding).
• Another form of this method is to have even the brake pedal
signal be electronic so that the brake pressure doesn’t have to
be released at the valve, but rather just the brake command to
the valve is reduced.
• Control of the brake valve would be accomplished through the
use of a controller and a speed sensing device.
Normal Skid Control
• It comes into play when wheel rotation slows down but has not
come to a stop.
• When this slowing down happens, the wheel sliding action has
just begun and not reached a full scale slide.
• In this situation the skid control valve removes some of the
hydraulic pressure to the wheel, which permits the wheel to
rotate a little faster and stop its sliding.
• The skid detection and control of each wheel is completely
independent of the others.
Locked Wheel Skid Control
• It causes the break to be fully released when its wheel locks.
• It will occur if the normal skid control does not prevent the
wheel from reaching a full skid.
• To relieve the locked wheel skid, the pressure is bled off
longer than in normal skid function. This is to give the wheel
time to regain speed.
Touchdown Protection
• The touchdown protection circuit prevents the brakes from
being applied during the landing approach even if the brake
pedals are depressed.
• This prevents the wheels from being locked when they contact
the runway.
• Two conditions must exist before the skid control valves
permit brake application:
i. The squat switch must signal that the weight of the aircraft
is on the wheels.
ii. The wheel generators sense a wheel speed over 15-20 mph.
Fail-safe Protection
• The fail-safe protection circuit monitors operation of the skid
control system. It automatically returns the brake system to
full manual in case of system failure. It also turns on a warning
light.
Limitations
• The use of Hydraulic Actuators are limited by the
predominantly non-linear nature of hydraulic fluid and
pressure responses
• Aspects of the system are difficult to measure or to estimate
during operation:
– Viscosity, Temperature, oil bulk modulus
• Despite typically offering fast responses due to low inertia of
the valve, there are always issues with delays due to
connecting lines
Benefits
• Hydraulic power/actuators offer:
– High power to weight ratio
– Reliable, self-lubricating operation
• The Antiskid valve fits simply within typical hydraulic braking
systems
• Long history of hydraulic systems usage – even though not
well model-able, has established usage history. Modeling is
worked around using Hardware in the Loop for the hydraulic
systems
Future Work
• Electric braking system actuators are starting to emerge in the
marketplace, such as are set for the upcoming Boeing 787
(which will have electric brakes)
• More work needs to be done on this systems regarding
reliability, design capability, modeling, efficiency and cost
• It is also not well understood how much benefit will be gained
by converting all these systems to electrical at this time. As
has been borne out with other mechanical systems, they are
piecewise converted to electrical, as design tools, software
methods and other control aspects are worked out and made
efficient, cheap and reliable.