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Jet Engine

History Of Jet Engines

After world war II designers dreamed to invent


an engine which can break the sound barrier
(speed of sound) , which led to the discovery of
gas turbine engines which was called as Jet
engine.
With the development of gas turbine engine
during second world war, New era of speed and
altitude is revealed & Concept of intermediaries
introduced
Dr. Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle were
the pioneers behind today’s jet engines.
Introduction
• Jet engine is also called Gas Turbine Engine.
• It works under the principle of Newton’s third law
which states that “For every acting force there is an
equal and opposite force.’’
MAIN COMPONENTS OF JET ENGINE

FAN
COMPRESSOR
COMBUSTOR
TURBINE
MIXER
NOZZLE
What is a Jet Engine ?

• A jet engine is a machine designed for the purpose of


creating large volumes of high velocity exhaust gases.
• This is done in order to overcome the aerodynamic drag of
an airplane.
• In the process of producing high velocity exhaust, the
engine also produces:
 Electrical Power
 Hydraulic Power
 Pneumatic power for air-conditioning & pressurization
 Hot Air for anti-icing protection
Basic Operation of a Jet Engine
• The basic operations of Jet Engine are as follows:
• Air enters the compressor where it is compressed.
• Fuel is then added and ignited.
• The resulting gas spins the gas turbine.
• The turbine powers the compressor.
• The gas then exists the engine at tailpipe.

• The way a jet engine operates is similar


• To the way an automobile
• engine operates i.e.
• Intake
• Compression
• Ignition
• exhaust
Structure of Jet Engine
Brayton Cycle

• Gas turbine engines work on Brayton power cycle.


• The air enters the compressor gets compressed and the
compressed air enters in to the combustion chamber,
where the fuel and air are mixed and burnt and passes
through the turbine, exit through nozzle with high
acceleration.
Brayton Cycle

• Since fresh air enters the compressor at the


beginning and exhaust are thrown out at the end,
this cycle is an open cycle.

• By replacing the combustion process by a constant


pressure heat addition process, and replacing the
exhaust discharging process by a constant pressure
heat rejection process, the open cycle described
above can be modified as a closed cycle, called
ideal Brayton cycle. The ideal Brayton cycle is made
up of four internally reversible processes.
Types Of Jet Engines

ROTARY ATHODYDS

• TURBO PROP • AEROTHERMODYNAMIC


DUCTS ( NO ROTORS)
• TURBO FAN
RAM JET
• TURBO SHAFT
PULSE JET
• TURBO JET
SCRAM JET
THESE ARE NOT THE
PRIME THRUST
SOURCES……
Pratt Whitney Turbojet Engine

Pratt-Whitney Turbofan Engine


Turbojet ENGINE
Turbofan ENGINE
Turbofan ENGINE
Turboprop ENGINE
Turboprop ENGINE
Turboprop ENGINE

Nozzle
Turboprop ENGINE
Turbo SHAFT ENGINE
•.
& More…….