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Consept

Geographic Information System


(GIS)

Brigjen TNI (Purn) Makmur Supriyatno


ON
Geographic Information System
(GIS)
GIS Definition

• "A component that consists of hardware, software,


geographic data and human resources that work
together effectively to input, store, repair, update,
manage, manipulate, integrate, analyze and present data
in a geographic-based information.“
• "Komponen yang terdiri dari perangkat keras, perangkat
lunak, data geografis dan sumber daya manusia yang
bekerja sama secara efektif untuk memasukkan,
menyimpan, memperbaiki, memperbarui, mengelola,
memanipulasi, mengintegrasikan, menganalisis dan
menyajikan data dalam informasi berbasis geografis."
On GIS

• Basically, GIS can be done manually.


• SIG will always be associated with computer-based systems.
• GIS-based computers will be very helpful when available geographic
data is the data on the number and size, and consists of many
interrelated themes.
• GIS has the ability to connect a variety of data at a given point on
Earth, combine, analyze and finally map the results.
• The data will be processed in a GIS spatial data.
• Geographically oriented data and a location that has a specific
coordinate system, as a basis of reference
GIS applications can answer some questions
“SIABIDIBAME”

• Who are the "victims“?


• In the event of his?
• Where is the location?
• What is the condition?
• How is its tendency or trend?
• What is the pattern of his?
• How is modeling her?
• Why does it happen?
• And other questions

It is this ability that distinguishes GIS from other information


systems
GIS is SYSTEM
SIG is a unified system consisting of various inter alia:

◊ Human Resources (brain ware) to carry out its role in formulating and
analyzing issues that determine the success of SIG.
◊ Accurate spatial geographic data;
◊ Data attributes are accurate;
◊ Data Device software (software);
◊ Computer hardware (hardware). SIG is a unified system consisting of
various inter alia:
SPATIAL DATA

• Most of the data will be handled in a GIS spatial data, geographic


data oriented.

• This data has a specific coordinate system as a reference base and


has two important parts different from other data.

• That location information (spatial) and descriptive information


(attributes).
SPATIAL DATA —LOCATION Information (Spatial)

The location information (spatial), relates to a


coordinates:

1. Geographic coordinates (latitude and


longitude);
2. XYZ coordinates;
3. Map datum and projection information.
SPATIAL DATA: Descriptive information
(attributes)

Descriptive information (attributes) or information nonspasial, a


location that has some information relating to:

1. Vegetation types;
2. Population;
3. The extent;
4. Demographics;
5. The speed and depth of the river;
6. Postal code;
7. Etc.
SPATIAL DATA FORMAT
SPATIAL DATA FORMAT

• In a simple format in a computer language and code


storage means form different data between files with
one another.

• In GIS, spatial data can be represented in two formats,


namely: the data and the data VECTOR RASTER.
VEKTOR DATA FORMAT (1)

Vector data is presented to the earth form a collection of


lines, area (the area bounded by a line which starts and
ends at the same point), points and nodes (points of
intersection between the two lines).
VECTOR DATA FORMAT (2)

• The main advantage of vector data format is the


accuracy in representing the point features, limitations
and straight lines.
• This is very useful for analysis requiring precision
positioning, for example on the basis of the data of
cadastral boundaries.
• Examples of other use is to define the spatial
relationship of some features.
• However, the main weakness of vector data is the
inability to accommodate the change is gradual.
VECTOR DATA FORMAT (3)

• Vector data are relatively economical in terms of file size


and precision in the location;

• But it is very difficult to use in mathematical


computation.
RASTER DATA FORMAT (1)

• Raster data (also called grid cells) is the data generated


from remote sensing systems.

• In raster data, geographic object represented as a grid


cell structure called a pixel (picture element).
RASTER DATA FORMAT (2)

• In raster data, the resolution (visual definition)


depending on the size of its pixels.

• Pixel resolution describes the actual size on the earth's


surface represented by each pixel in the image.

• The smaller the size of the Earth's surface is represented


by a single cell, the higher the resolution.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RASTER DATA
FORMAT (3)

• While raster data typically requires storage space larger


file and location precision lower;

• But it is easier to use mathematically.


PEMILIHAN FORMAT data yang digunakan
sangat tergantung:

• Tujuan penggunaan;
• Data yang tersedia;
• Volume data yang dihasilkan;
• Ketelitian yang diinginkan; dan
• Kemudahan dalam analisa.
SPATIAL DATA SOURCES
Analog Map

• Map Analog: analog map is a map in printed form. Such as


topographic maps, soil maps, and so on. Generally analog maps
created with the technique of cartography, and most likely has such
a spatial reference coordinates, scale, wind direction, and so forth.

• In stages purposes SIG as a data source, analog map is converted to


a digital map.

• The way to change the format of raster into vector formats through
the digitization process so it can show the actual coordinates on the
earth's surface.
Data Remote Sensing Systems (1)

• Results satellite imagery;

• Aerial Photo with a vehicle: Fixed Wing, Rotary Wing,


Drone and so forth
Data Remote Sensing Systems (2)

• Is an important source of data for GIS.

• Because of the availability of data on a regular basis and cover a


specific area.

• With the assortment of satellites in space to the specifications of


each, we can obtain various types of satellite imagery for a variety
of application purposes.

• This data is typically represented in raster format.


Field Data Measurement Results

• Field measurement data is the data generated by its own


calculation techniques.

• This data can be digital and attribute data.

• For example, administrative boundaries, land ownership


boundaries, persill boundaries, boundaries of forest concessions,
and others.
GPS Data Results

• GPS technology provides an important breakthrough in providing


data for GIS.

• The accuracy of GPS measurements higher with technological


development.

• This data is typically represented in a vector format.

• Discussion about GPS explained in a separate section.


Science Supporting GIS

Supporting Science of Engineering

Geodesy;
Aerial Photography;
Photogramemtry;
Cartography;
Soft and Hardware;
Internet;
Remote Sensing
Global Position System (GPS)
Science Supporting GIS

Basic Sciences:

Matematic;
Trigonometry;
Physics;
Chemistry;
Dll.
ASSIGNMENT

Each student should look in to website : “one article” which is discuss about
format in GIS:

 DATA VECTOR; atau


 DATA RASTER

Make an essay with 4-5 pages, 1 ½ Space, Times Roman, Paper Size A4.
Collected and give to the lecturer next week.
Questions?