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INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

TREATMENT
Anionic
Flocculation
Clarification
pH
Flow
BOD
Cationic
Capacity
Polymer
Coagulation
Neutralization
Compliance
TOPICS
Terms and meanings
Waste treatment technologies
Typical process
Typical procedure
TERMS AND MEANINGS

pH
 Scale 0 to 14
 7 is Neutral
 Concentration of H ions
 Why control pH?
TERMS AND MEANINGS

 Coagulation-Formation of chemical
flocs that adsorb, entrap, or bring
suspended matter together
 Results from opposite charge
 Particles are destabilized and form
visible pin floc
TERMS AND MEANINGS

 Flocculation
 Enlargement of pinfloc to speed
separation
 Occurs via addition of long chain
polymer
 Polymer actually grabs onto several
pinflocs and pulls material together
TERMS AND MEANINGS

 Clarification
 Removal of insoluble particles from a
suspension
 For metal removal Typically by
sinking
 For BOD removal Typically by floating
WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
 Pollution prevention
 Point source
 End of pipe
MINIMIZATION METHODS
 Drag out / product control
 Counter-current rinsing /
product recovery
 Closing the loop
WHAT IS DRAG OUT?
BENEFITS OF CONTROL
 Reduces contaminant / product loss
 Keeps material where it is needed
 Improves waste treatment
reproducibility
BATCH RINSING
COUNTER-CURRENT RINSING
POINT SOURCE
POINT SOURCE
 Recovery of materials and rinse water
 Technologies
 Ion exchange
 Ultrafiltration (UF)
 Reverse osmosis (RO)
 Carbon filtration
 Evaporation
 Precipitation
 Standard filtration
POINT SOURCE
- Ion Exchange -

 Normal operation
 Ion capture
 Regeneration
operation
 Ion recovery
 Common use
 Water softening
 Water purification
POINT SOURCE
- Ultrafiltration -

 Pressure
driven
 Separation of
colloids and
macro-molecules
from
water streams
Commonly used
for emulsified oil
separation
POINT SOURCE
- Reverse Osmosis -

 Pressure-driven
 Separation of ions from a
water stream
 Commonly used for
 Water purification
 Metal plating rinses
 Boiler feed water
 Ion exchange
pretreatment
POINT SOURCE
- Carbon Filtration -

 Separation technique
based on adsorption
 Intimate contact is
required for proper
operation
 Used for the removal of
 Colors
 Odors
 Organics
POINT SOURCE
- Evaporation -

 Energy intensive
method for contaminant
separation
 Applications
 Ion exchange
regenerant
 RO / UF
concentrate
 Spent cleaners
 Floor scrubbing
water
END OF PIPE TREATMENT

 Recovery is not the issue at this point


 Treatment to discharge requirements is
goal

 Technologies
 Chemical precipitation
 Sinking sludge clarifiers
 Floating sludge dissolved air
flotation
 Biological activity
 Various combinations of point source
technologies
END OF PIPE TREATMENT

TYPICAL PROCESS
END OF PIPE TREATMENT

TYPICAL PROCESS

Precipitation
 Chemical separation
 Materials used include
 Acids and caustics
 Coagulants
 Flocculants
H2SO4
P-5

E-26

Polymer
NaOH PAC

E-22 E-23 E-24

E-15 E-10 E-3 E-4

E-1 E-12

E-17
E-16
TYPICAL PROCEDURE
Adjust mixed stream pH
 Proper mixing is key!
 Adjustments made to improve
 Pin floc formation
 TDS removal (BOD component)
 Metal contaminant removal
 Compliance
TYPICAL PROCESS
TERMS AND MEANINGS
Table 19.1. Unit processes and operations used in wastewater
reclamation and potential for contaminant removal (adapted
from Metcalf & Eddy, 1991)

BOD COD TOC Turbid Color Coli NH3-N

Primary treatment x x x x o o

Activated sludge + + + + x + +
Nitrification + + + + x + +
Denitrification o o o o x
Trickling filter + + x x o o
Coag.-floc.-sed. + + + + + + o

Symbols: o = 25 % removal of influent concentration, x = 25 - 50 %, + =


> 50 %. Blank denotes no data
Table 19.1. Unit processes and operations used in wastewater
reclamation and potential for contaminant removal (adapted
from Metcalf & Eddy, 1991)

BOD COD TOC Turbid Color Coli NH3-N


Filtration A/S x x x x x x

GAC adsorption + x + + + + x

Ion exchange x x o o +

Chlorination + +

Reverse osmosis + + + + + +

Ozone o + x +
Symbols: o = 25 % removal of influent concentration, x = 25 - 50 %, + =
> 50 %. Blank denotes no data
TYPICAL PROCESS

 Monitor waste stream


 Control system
 Equipment displays
 Operator experience and judgment !!!
CONCLUSION

 EACH WASTE STREAM IS UNIQUE


 DEFINE ALL WASTE STREAMS, THEN
DEVELOP A TREATMENT STRATEGY THAT
MEETS YOUR NEEDS
 BE AWARE OF CHANGES TO THE SYSTEM
AND TAKE APPROPRIATE STEPS
 DISCHARGE COMPLIANCE WILL BE
ACHIEVED
Questions