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MANGALYAAN

INDIA’S MISSION TO MARS


MANGALYAAN
• Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) a.k.a Mangalyaan is a space probe studying
Martian atmosphere.
• It’ s India’s first interplanetary mission.
• ISRO became the 4th space agency to reach Mars, after Soviet space
program, NASA and European Space Agency.
• India became the 1st Asian nation to reach mars and the 1st to do so in its
maiden attempt.
• MOM is designed to look for methane (a possible indicator of life),
Deuterium-Hydrogen ratio and other constants.
MISSION OBJECTIVES
• To develop the technologies required for design,
planning, management and operations of an
interplanetary mission
• Deep space communication, navigation, mission
planning and management
• Incorporate autonomous features to handle
contingency situations
• Exploration of Mars surface features, morphology,
mineralogy and Martian atmosphere by indigenous
scientific instruments
PROJECT TRIANGLE
• SCOPE: MOM is a ‘Technical Demonstrator’ to attract space projects
from other countries leading to more employment to local talents.
• TIME: Build duration was a record 15 months, the designed mission
duration was 6 months but has surpassed its limits and is still going
strong.
• COST: World’s cheapest Mars mission with a cost of 450 cr ($74 mn)
which is cheaper than the cost of Hollywood movie gravity and is a
ride cheaper than auto rickshaw with ₹7 a km!
PROJECT INITIATION AND PLANNING
• 23 Nov 08 public announcement of MOM was made by Madhavan
Nair (former Isro chairman).
• 2010 concept began with a feasibility study by Indian Institute of
Space Science and Technology after Chandrayaan’s success.
• 3 Aug 12 govt. approved the project with a budget approximation of
₹454 crore
• Launch was planned on 28 Oct 13 but was later postponed 5 Nov due
to technical difficulties.
PROJECT INITIATION AND PLANNING
• Hohmann transfer orbit set a deadline to launch MOM between oct
and nov 13, with next window in 2016.
• Domestic industries were chosen to meet the deadline with TOT.
• All on-board instruments where planned to be manufactured
indigenously from centres at Ahmedabad, Bangalore and Trivandrum.
• To achieve in its first attempt and to gain world recognition was one
of its objectives.
EXECUTION
• PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP enabled the
build phase to be completed in 10 months
and is also a reason for low mission cost.
• A total of 130 firms were involved with 48 of
them in development of spacecraft and the
rest in launch vehicle development.
• Non – readiness of the larger GSLV forced
ISRO to light lift, low cost liquid engine
powered PSLV. HAL delivers MOM’s basic structure to
ISRO
• 5 Nov 13 probe was successfully launched
and put into Earth’s orbit.
MISSION PHASES:
• Geocentric Phase: Orbit raising
manoeuvres to attain enough momentum
to inject the probe into Hohmann transfer
orbit.
• Heliocentric Phase: Tangential departure
from earth’s gravity and a trajectory is set
to enter Martian orbit
• Martian Phase: Looping around mars in a
hyperbolic orbit and collecting intended
intel. 24 Sept 14 orbit insertion successful.
DIFFICULTIES FACED
• Launch delay : Ships carrying telemetry
antenna couldn’t reach the location on time
due to bad weather over pacific ocean.
• Deciding between cryogenic GSLV and solid
propelled PSLV.
• Communication Black out: Development of
on board autonomy.
• Radiation: Design inculcated measures to
protect on board systems.
• Firing the engine after 300 days. (More
than 2000 simulations conducted on
earth).
• Criticism.
• Underperformance of engine during 4th
orbit raising manoeuvre, fuel
constraints.
• Navigation: Star mapping, ancient
explorers and sailors.
ANY QUESTIONS?