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CHAPTER 7

Cellular Respiration
OBTAINING FOOD
Biologist classify organisms by how they obtain 
their energy

Organisms get their energy in two ways. They can 
be
1. Autotrophs

2. Heterotrophs
CHEMICAL ENERGY
HARVESTING THE ENERGY IN FOOD
 How do we get energy out of the food we eat?
 A process called Cellular Respiration

 Cellular Respiration­ The process by which 
plants and animals use STORED ENERGY in 
food (sugar/glucose) for cellular work.  

 Plants and animals release energy by breaking 
down glucose.
WHERE IS CELLULAR RESPIRATION 
TAKING PLACE?
Mitochondria!
CELLULAR RESPIRATION 
EQUATION
 Sugar (Glucose) + Oxygen   Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy    
              

 C6H12O6       +   O2               CO2       +   H2O + ATP
HARVESTING FOOD
The products of
 photosynthesis are the 
chemical ingredients for 
cellular respiration, while
 the products of cellular 
respiration are the chemical
 ingredients for photosynthesis.

Recycling!!
CELLULAR RESPIRATION 
OVERVIEW: NOTICE THERE ARE 3 
STAGES
STAGE 1: GLYCOLYSIS = (SUGAR BREAKING)
 *Takes place within the cytoplasm of the cell 
                  (NOT in the mitochondria)
GLYCOLYSIS IN 
DETAIL
ADDING UP THE ATP 
MOLECULES: 
ADDING UP THE ATP MOLECULES
 Glycolysis produces 4 ATP molecules, but recall 
that it requires 2 ATP molecules as an initial 
energy investment.  The result is a net gain of       
2 ATP molecules.
 
  The Krebs cycle produces 2 more ATP 
molecules (one for each three­carbon molecule). 
 
 And finally, the ETC/ATP Synthase turbines 
produce about 34 more molecules of ATP.

That’s 38 ATP molecules
AEROBIC RESPIRATION
Most ATP production occurs after glycolysis 
and requires oxygen = AEROBIC 
RESPIRATION 

Without oxygen, most of your cells would be 
unable to produce much ATP. As a result, 
you cannot survive for long without a fresh 
supply of oxygen.
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION = CELLULAR 
RESPIRATION WHEN OXYGEN IS NOT AVAILABLE 

Fermentation
•When cells need ATP faster than aerobic cellular
respiration can produce it…
•Aerobic Cellular respiration still continues, but it
is not the main source of ATP
•Fermentation makes ATP entirely from glycolysis,
• Glycolysis does not use oxygen!!
• ONLY TWO ATP ARE PRODUCED!
Lactic Acid Fermentation:
•Fermentation in muscle cells produces a waste product called lactic
acid.
•The temporary buildup of lactic acid in muscle cells contributes to
muscle fatigue.
•There are also fungi and bacteria that produce lactic acid during
fermentation transform milk into cheese and yogurt
The sharpness or sour flavor of yogurt and some cheeses is mainly
due to lactic acid.
Similar kinds of microbial fermentation turn soybeans into soy sauce
and cabbage into sauerkraut or kimchi 
Alcoholic Fermentation:
Fermentation in Microorganisms
•Yeast (a microscopic fungus) is capable of both cellular respiration
and fermentation.
•When yeast cells are kept in an anaerobic environment—an
environment without oxygen—they are forced to ferment sugar and
other foods.
•Fermentation in yeast produces alcohol, instead of lactic acid, as a
waste product
PRODUCTS OF FERMENTATION
 Yogurt from milk
 Soy sauce from soy beans

 Vodka from potatoes

 Whisky from corn

 Sake from rice

 Mead from honey

 Air bubbles which make bread rise (from yeast)

 Beer from barley (and hops for flavoring)