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Frederic H.

Martini
Fundamentals of
Anatomy & Physiology
SIXTH EDITION

Chapter 2, part 2
The Chemical Level of
Organization

PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by


Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii
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SECTION 2-4
Organic Compounds

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Organic compounds

• Organic compounds generally include


• Carbon
• Hydrogen
• and sometimes Oxygen

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Organic compounds

• Four major classes of organic compounds are


• Carbohydrates
• Lipids
• Proteins
• Nucleic acids
• High energy compounds are also organic
compounds

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Carbohydrates
• Important energy source for metabolism
• Monosaccharides, disaccharides and
polysaccharides
• Di- and polysaccharides formed from
monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis

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Figure 2.11 The Formation and Breakdown of
Complex Sugars

PLAY Animation: The formation and breakdown of complex sugars


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Figure 2.12 The Structure of a Polysaccharide

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Lipids include fats, oils, and waxes

• Five classes:
• Fatty acids
• Eicosanoids
• Glycerides
• Steroids
• Phospholipids
• Glycolipids

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Figure 2.13 Fatty acids

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Figure 2.15 Triglyceride Formation

• Triglycerides =
three fatty acids
attached by
dehydration
synthesis to one
molecule of
glycerol

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Steroids

• Are involved in cell membrane structure


• Include sex hormones and hormones regulating
metabolism
• Are important in lipid digestion

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Figure 2.16 Steroids

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Proteins perform many vital functions in the
body. The six important types are:

• Structural proteins
• Contractile proteins
• Transport proteins
• Enzymes
• Buffering proteins
• Antibodies

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Proteins are chains of amino acids

• Amino acids contain an amino group, a


carboxylic group and a radical group
• Polypeptides are linear sequences of amino acids
held together by peptide bonds

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Figure 2.18 Amino Acids

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Figure 2.19 Peptide Bonds

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The four levels of protein structure are:

• Primary structure (amino acids sequence)


• Secondary structure (amino acid interactions)
• Tertiary structure (complex folding)
• Quaternary structure (protein complexes)

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Figure 2.20 Protein Structure

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Enzyme reactions

• Reactants (substrate) interact to yield a product


by binding to the active site of the enzyme
• Cofactors must bond to the enzyme before
substrate binding can occur
• Coenzymes are organic cofactors commonly
derived from vitamins

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Figure 2.21 A simplified view of enzyme
structure and function

PLAY Animation: Enzyme structure and function


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The shape of a protein determines its function

• Proteins pushed outside their optimal


temperature and pH range become temporarily
or permanently denatured and will cease to
function

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Nucleic acids

• Store and process information at the molecular


level
• Made of purines and pyrimidines
• DNA and RNA

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Figure 2.22 Purines and Pyrimidines

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Figure 2.23 Nucleic Acids: RNA and DNA

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Nucleic acids are chains of nucleotides

• Nucleotides are composed of a sugar, a phosphate


and a nitrogenous base
• Sugar = deoxyribose (DNA) or ribose (RNA)
• DNA Bases = adenine, thymine, cytosine,
guanine
• RNA bases = adenine, uracil, cytosine, guanine

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High energy compounds store cellular energy in
high energy bonds

• Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)


• Made by adding a phosphate group to
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
• Process referred to as phosphorylation

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SECTION 2-5
Chemicals and Cells

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Biochemical compounds form functional units
called cells

• Metabolic turnover allows cells to change and to


adapt to changes in their environment

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You should now be familiar with:

• Atoms and how they combine to form


compounds.
• Chemical reactions and enzymes.
• Organic and inorganic compounds.
• Water, pH, and buffers.
• The structure and function of carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and high energy
compounds.

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