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DISUSUN OLEH :

YELMIDA A.
The world of materials
Steels
Cast irons
Al-alloys
Metals
Cu-alloys
Ni-alloys
Ti-alloys
PE, PP, PC
Alumina PA (Nylon)
Si-Carbide Polymers,
Ceramics, elastomers
glasses GFRP Butyl rubber
Soda-glass CFRP Neoprene
Pyrex Composites
KFRP
Plywood

Polymer foams Woods


Metal foams Natural
Foams materials
Ceramic foams Natural fibres:
Glass foams Hemp, Flax,
Cotton
Pendahuluan
• Komposit merupakan dua macam atau lebih
material yang digabungkan atau dikombinasikan
dalam skala makroskopis ( dapat terlihat langsung
oleh mata) sehingga menjadi material baru yang
lebih berguna.
• Jika campuran terjadi dalam skala mikroskopis
disebut dengan paduan
• Komposit terdiri dari 2 bagian utama yaitu :
1. Matriks, berfungsi untuk perekat atau pengikat dan
pelindung filler (pengisi) dari kerusakan eksternal seperti
benturan (impact).
2. Filler (pengisi)/serat berfungsi sebagai penguat dari
matriks karena umumnya, filler/serat jauh lebih kuat dari
matriks.
• Struktur dan sifat masing-masing material
yang menyusun komposit berbeda satu sama
lainnya, baik sifat fisika maupun sifat kimia
dan tetap terpisah dalam hasil akhir bahan
tersebut.
fiber (serat) resin composite material
• Matriks dalam struktur komposit berperan sebagai
phase continuous
• Matrik bisa berasal dari bahan polimer, logam, maupun
keramik.
• Klasifikasi matrik : MMC, CMC, PMC

metal ceramic polymer

Matriks memiliki fungsi:


1. Mengikat serat menjadi satu kesatuan struktur
2. Melindungi serat dari kerusakan akibat kondisi
lingkungan
3. Mentransfer dan mendistribusikan beban ke serat
4. Menyumbangkan beberapa sifat seperti, kekakuan,
ketangguhan dan tahanan listrik.
• Filler biasanya berupa serat atau serbuk/partikel.
Serat yang sering digunakan antara lain serat E-Glass,
Boron, Carbon dll.
• Bisa juga dari serat alam antara lain serat kenaf,
selulosa, rami, cantula
• Filler berperan sebagai Secondary Phase/Dispersed
phase → (Reinforcement = memperkuat)
Classification of Composite Materials

• Traditional composites – composite materials


that occur in nature or have been produced by
civilizations for many years
– Examples: wood, concrete, asphalt
• Synthetic composites - modern material
systems normally associated with the
manufacturing industries, in which the
components are first produced separately and
then combined in a controlled way to achieve
the desired structure, properties, and part
geometry
Classification
Reinforcing Phase (Secondary)
Other Composite Structures

• Laminar composite structure – conventional


• Sandwich structure
• Honeycomb sandwich structure
Methods of Reinforcing Plastics

Schematic illustration of methods of reinforcing plastics (matrix) with (a) particles, (b)
short or long fibers or flakes, and (c) continuous fibers. The laminate structures
shown in (d) can be produced from layers of continuous fibers or sandwich structures
using a foam or honeycomb core
• (a) A hexagonal cell honeycomb core, (b) can be joined to two
face sheets by means of adhesive sheets, (c) producing an
exceptionally lightweight yet stiff, strong honeycomb sandwich
structure.
Aramid-aluminum laminate
(layers joined by adhesives)

Lightning strike
resistance

Fatigue resistance
©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™
is a trademark used herein under license.

Glass fibers A carbon


fiber tow
Schematic illustration of methods of reinforcing plastics (matrix) with (a) particles, (b)
short or long fibers or flakes, and (c) continuous fibers. The laminate structures
shown in (d) can be produced from layers of continuous fibers or sandwich structures
using a foam or honeycomb core
Metal-Matrix Composite Parts

Figure 9.10 Examples of metal-matrix composite parts.


Source: Courtesy of Metal Matrix Cast Composites, LLC.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Metal-Matrix Composite Materials and
Applications

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Why Composites are Important
• Composites can be very strong and stiff, yet very
light in weight, so ratios of strength-to-weight and
stiffness-to-weight are several times greater than
steel or aluminum
• Fatigue properties are generally better than for
common engineering metals
• Toughness is often greater too
• Composites can be designed that do not corrode
like steel
• Possible to achieve combinations of properties not
attainable with metals, ceramics, or polymers alone