2 views

Uploaded by Rodney Kevin

kjkjk

- m2007f
- Random Variables
- 2 Functii de Distributie
- Chapter 6
- Item Analysis ABM a Ok
- Stats Chapter5
- ps1
- 100764.pdf
- Periodic Review Inventory Model With
- Chapter 6 17
- 4 Discrete Distribution
- IPPTCh005
- Probability and Statistics for Management And Engineering Basics
- Lecture6 Normal Distribution
- ch05
- Statistical Investigation of the Electrical Breakdown
- Discrete and Continuous Probability Distribution Toolkit
- IT3305_syllabus_V1
- Abdullah 2014 Impact of Firms_ Life-cycle on Conservatism
- HT for Beginners

You are on page 1of 42

Random Variables

A random variable is a way of recording a

quantitative variable of a random experiment.

4. Random Variables

A random variable is a way of recording a

quantitative variable of a random experiment.

random variables.

4. Random Variables

A random variable is a way of recording a

quantitative variable of a random experiment.

random variables.

distribution (such as a binomial distribution)

then our work becomes easier. We use

formulas and tables.

5. Continuous Random Variables

quantitative variable of a random experiment.

random variables.

distribution (such as a binomial distribution)

then our work becomes easier. We use

formulas and tables.

5. Continuous Random Variables

range of values, not just particular ones.

Examples:

Heights

Distance a golfer hits the ball with their driver

Time to run 100 meters

Electricity usage of a home.

Continuous probability

distribution functions

For a discrete random variable,

probabilities are given as a table of values,

and the distribution can be graphed as a

bar graph.

probabilities are specified by a continuous

function. The graph of the probability

distribution function is a curve.

Figure 5.1 A probability f(x) for a

continuous random variable x

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Definition

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Figure 5.2 Density Function for Friction

Coefficient, Example 5.1

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Find probability friction is less than 10.

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Find probability friction is less than 10.

Solution:Probabiity = area of shaded

triangle = (1/2)(5)(0.2)=0.5

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Uniform Distribution

A Uniform Distribution has equally likely

values over the range of possible

outcomes.

Uniform Distribution

A Uniform Distribution has equally likely

values over the range of possible

outcomes.

distribution is a rectangle with area equal

to 1.

Example

The figure below depicts the probability distribution for

temperatures in a manufacturing process. The

temperatures are controlled so that they range

between 0 and 5 degrees Celsius, and every possible

temperature is equally likely.

P(x)

0.2

0

x

0 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature (degrees Celsius)

Example

Note that the total area under the

“curve” is 1.

P(x)

0.2

0

x

0 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature (degrees Celsius)

P(x)

Example

0.2

0 x

0 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature (degrees Celsius)

exactly 4 degrees?

P(x)

Example

0.2

0 x

0 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature (degrees Celsius)

exactly 4 degrees?

Answer: 0

Explanation

Since we have a continuous random variable

there are an infinite number of possible

outcomes between 0 and 5, the probability of

one number out of an infinite set of numbers is

0.

Example

What is the probability the temperature is

between 10C and 40C?

P(x)

0.2

0 x

0 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature (degrees Celsius)

Example

What is the probability the temperature is

between 10C and 40C?

P(x)

0.2

0 x

0 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature (degrees Celsius)

What is the probability the temperature is

between 10C and 40C?

P(x)

0.2

0 x

0 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature (degrees Celsius)

We know that the total area of the rectangle

is 1, and we can see that the part of the

rectangle between 1 and 4 is 3/5 of the total,

so P(1 x 4) = 3/5*(1) = 0.6.

Review: Probabilities and Area

For a density curve depicting the

probability distribution of a continuous

random variable,

– the total area under the curve is 1,

– there is a direct correspondence between

area and probability.

– Only the probability of an event occurring

in some interval can be evaluated.

– The probability that a continuous random

variable takes on any particular value is

zero.

General Uniform Distribution

A Uniform Distribution has equally likely

values over the range of possible

outcomes, say c to d.

1

Height of the density function : f(x)

d c

cd

Mean

2

d c

Standard Deviation

12

Normal Distributions

This is the most common observed

distribution of continuous random variables.

A normal distribution corresponds to bell-

shaped curves.

Normal Distributions

This is the most common observed

distribution of continuous random variables.

A normal distribution corresponds to bell-

shaped curves.

e ( x ) 2 / 2 2

y

2

Reminder: Mu is the mean, sigma is the standard deviation.

Examples

The following are examples of normally

distributed everyday data.

– Grades on a test.

– How many chips are in a small bag of potatoe

chips.

– The measurements of distance between two

points.

– The heights of students in this class.

Normal Distributions

Normal Distributions

– µ it’s centered, σ is how far it’s spread out.

Standard Normal Distribution

The Standard Normal Distribution is a

normal probability distribution that has a

mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.

0, 1

In this way the formula giving the heights of

the normal curve is simplified greatly.

Z-score

Standard Normal Probabilities

z takes on values between 0 and 1, which

is represented by the area under the

curve between 0 and 1.

P(0 z 1) = 0.3413

P(0 z 1) = 0.341

Revelation!

Since the mean is 0 and the standard

deviation is 1, this tells us that the

probability that z is within one standard

deviation of the mean (either below or

above) is (2)(0.341)= 0.682.

P(0 z 1) = 0.341

Revelation!

Since the mean is 0 and the standard

deviation is 1, this tells us that the

probabiity that z is within one standard

deviation of the mean (either below or

above) is (2)(0.341)= 0.682.

Agrees with Empirical Rule: 68% of

data lies within one standard deviation

of the mean

Finding Probabilities when given

z-scores.

For a given z-score, the probability can be

found in a table in the back of the text

(Table IV), also see inside front cover.

the curve to the right between 0 and z. To

find other intervals requires some tricks.

Table 5.1

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Find probability z is between -

1.33 and +1.33.

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Want probability z is between -1.33 and +1.33.

Solution: Locate 1.33 in the row labeled 1.3 and the column

labeled .03. By symmetry, ans = 2(0.4082) = .8164

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Find probability z exceeds 1.96 in absolute

value.

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Areas under the standard normal curve for

z exceeding 1.96 in absolute value

Copyright © 2013

Pearson Education, Inc..

Areas under the standard normal curve for

z exceeding 1.96 in absolute value

Revelation!

It follows that the area of the un-

shaded region is 0.95. Agrees with

Empirical Rule which states that,

for data sets having a mound

shaped distribution, 95% of the

values lie within approximately 2

standard deviations of the mean

Keys to success

use it.

the course.

- m2007fUploaded byAnnie Koh
- Random VariablesUploaded bymadan@123
- 2 Functii de DistributieUploaded byRadu Palaghianu
- Chapter 6Uploaded byFatimaIjaz
- Item Analysis ABM a OkUploaded byjun del rosario
- Stats Chapter5Uploaded byWilliam Pope
- ps1Uploaded byMatt Staple
- 100764.pdfUploaded bycolivarescruz
- Periodic Review Inventory Model WithUploaded byDr-Mohammed Farid
- Chapter 6 17Uploaded byAmeer Elatma
- 4 Discrete DistributionUploaded bySudibyo Gunawan
- IPPTCh005Uploaded byRene
- Probability and Statistics for Management And Engineering BasicsUploaded bySiddharthSaini
- Lecture6 Normal DistributionUploaded byAsebaho Badr
- ch05Uploaded byjyoti87654321
- Statistical Investigation of the Electrical BreakdownUploaded byMilad Karimy
- Discrete and Continuous Probability Distribution ToolkitUploaded bySean Callahan
- IT3305_syllabus_V1Uploaded byVanusha Adihetty
- Abdullah 2014 Impact of Firms_ Life-cycle on ConservatismUploaded byYunieSaputrie
- HT for BeginnersUploaded byNamita
- Model Knapsack Untuk UMTSUploaded byedy
- ps08Uploaded byspitzersglare
- syllabusUploaded bySaradeMiguel
- 6 Measurement System ErrorsUploaded byAli Ahmad
- 9709_w03_qp_6Uploaded bymichael heng
- cseise6thelecUploaded byMurthy S V N
- Six Sigma Green Belt Training Statistical Self Assessment ToolUploaded byashutoshsingh2302
- Baker (2008) Intro to PSHA v1 3Uploaded byketanbajaj
- Chapter 05Uploaded bythom
- IRJET-Risk analysis in adopting FES-exoskeleton system in rehabilitation programsUploaded byIRJET Journal

- Gas vs EElect Proyecto(1)Uploaded byRodney Kevin
- Viscosimetro_burbujas (1).pdfUploaded bySpliner Avila
- CAVITACION TEORIAUploaded byHéctor Jorge Bravo Pastor
- NuevoDocumento 2019-04-14 14.45.44_1.pdfUploaded byRodney Kevin
- AnexosUploaded byRodney Kevin
- Park TransformadaUploaded byRodney Kevin
- asdsadUploaded byRodney Kevin
- Dialnet-EspanaImpulsaLasInversionesExtranjerasEnLaCuencaMe-3359153Uploaded byRodney Kevin
- dap48_datasheetUploaded byRodney Kevin
- dataUploaded byRodney Kevin
- BajarUploaded byRamiro Robles Cala
- Copas ZahnUploaded byGina Valderrama
- Marcodq PLLUploaded byRodney Kevin
- Leccion19_Tiristores.pdfUploaded byAnonymous BanTco
- detycorrec.pdfUploaded byAndreina
- Manual Word UnUploaded byRodney Kevin
- Sin Título 1Uploaded byRodney Kevin
- Series de FourierUploaded bygiomayra
- Hoja de Vida Samuel López.docxUploaded byRodney Kevin
- Hoja de Vida Samuel López.docxUploaded byRodney Kevin
- tia569Uploaded byNeikos Tenkosei
- Corrección del factor de potencia ABBUploaded byJose Antonio Ormeño Villa
- Manual (3).docxUploaded byRodney Kevin
- Mi Manual de Wrd_by MeUploaded byGloriela79
- Problemas VigasUploaded byIvan Garzon
- Manual de ServicioUploaded byAngelMartin303
- Buenas practicas_2016_04_23_Optical.pdfUploaded byRodney Kevin
- Marco Teorico CanaletasUploaded byRodney Kevin
- maquinas_electricas - jesus fraile moraUploaded bySaratoga
- LIMITESUploaded byRodney Kevin

- Seminar of Probabilistic and StatisticsUploaded byhajriyanti yatmar
- Q1 Exam Model AnswerUploaded byMohammadNassar
- lec24_cnn.pdfUploaded byDoThuThuy
- 5Enote7Uploaded byjj012586
- DfdUploaded byNandaShivani
- 5th Sem Dbms Lab ProgramsUploaded byPrajwal R Prasad
- New Introduction of Queueing ModelUploaded byPuvaneswari Puva
- Files-7. Tools Introduction to VHDLUploaded byNaveen Bhat
- HW3Uploaded by李鎮宇
- SSADM StepsUploaded byRevathi Durai
- EM and Gibbs AssignmentsUploaded byanhnhat88
- Apresentação LM Frutas-0 v2 - Cs6Uploaded byAdriano Acioly Ponte
- Maps.docxUploaded byaula
- BIBLIOGRAFIEUploaded byneznaiuska
- System Performance and EvaluationUploaded byseunnuga93
- Ken Black QA 5th chapter14 SolutionUploaded byRushabh Vora
- Idef1xUploaded byNecat Sönmez
- Database NormalizationUploaded bybogasi
- The Making of Shadow of the ColossusUploaded bykeeperofwords
- Oop(2)Uploaded byRaymond Salamat Perez
- 01~Lecture NotesUploaded byAmit Kumar
- Listing ProgramUploaded byAndri Konyoa Konyoa
- Heuristics for License Plate Detection and ExtractionUploaded byRommel Jagus
- case studyUploaded byKåpïlLàád
- ch-11 interfaces, types and roles.pptUploaded bybhargavi
- Network (CODASYL) Data ModelUploaded byPaolo_R
- Relational Algebra ExercisesUploaded byShivam Shukla
- VersionUploaded byArif Uwong
- Speed BumpsUploaded byAwNerd
- MYTUTELAGE CorelDRAW X6 Course OutlineUploaded byatikson