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Congestion Reduction in Europe

Advancing Transport Efficiency

Annette Kayser, The City of Copenhagen


What is CREATE about?
CREATE searches to find out how best to
• reduce congestion and
• improve transport network
performance

CREATE will
• Explore historical development in planning and
transport
• Identify success factors in encouraging modal
shift in European capital cities
• Work on future solutions
18 Partners from 11 Countries
Universities

Private Company &


City
Consultants
network

10 Cities
10 European and Euro-Med
Cities
The CREATE approach

Most cities around the world are at different


stages of an evolutionary transport policy
development process…
Stage 1 Cities

Planning for vehicles


Cities with “pro-car” policies are characterized by rapid urban
economic growth linked to the growth of car ownership and use. They
prioritise major road building and new car parking.
Stage 2 Cities

Planning for peoples movement


Cities facing problems associated with increased car use, such as
congestion and pollution, introduce policies to provide better public
transport alternatives and limit car access to city centres.
Stage 3 Cities

Planning for city life


Cities aspire to become “liveable cities” by encouraging street
activities, relocating road space to public transport, and promoting
walking and cycling.
Can this evolutionary/learning process
be short-circuited?

How can we use the knowledge for the next


steps / stages?
Data collection

4 kinds of data:
1. Observational data (traffic counts, speed measurements, GPS
and mobile phone data).

2. Behavioural data (existing household travel survey data, such as


car driver modal shares).

3. Quantitative data (supply and contextual variables).

4. Qualitative data (process factors / implementation of sustainable


mobility policies).
Observational
data, example

INRIX Congestion Index


average of the 7 congestion rates, weighted by
volumes and travel times

INRIX Congestion
Index
STAGE 3
London 13.9
Paris 11.8
Berlin 7.5
Vienna 7.3
Copenhagen 4.0
STAGE 1
Adana 3.5
Key
indicators of
travel
behaviour
Car trips
Key
indicators of
travel
behaviour
PT trips
Key
indicators of
travel
behaviour
Bicycle trips
Quantitative data

Development of car ownership


CREATE stage 3 cities.
Quantitative data
Policies – not only transport planning, also
structural impacts, e.g. some important factors
in CPH
1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
                          Reduced car registration fee

                        Bridges for cyclists and pedestrians

                        Car-ban in some major streets

                        Financial crisis

                      Branding: City of Cyclists+Eco Metropolis

                      Paid parking zone system

                    Metro and A-bus network

                    Urban development - mixed use areas

                    Transform industrial to office areas    

                    Øresund bridge

                Unemployment in Cph          

            Economic crisis in Denmark              

            Transformation from manufacturing to other industries    

          Traffic management using signals at city borders, traffic calming etc.

          Oil crises                  

        Relocation of work places out of the city                

    Pedestrian streets

Expansion of space used for cars                    

Development of S-train network        

Tram network                    
Approaches to planning in stage
3 cities
• Empirical approach
• Vision based approach

Tends to have the same development – following the


evolution cycle
Can we use the knowledge to
better predict the future?
Some questions to include:
• Is a shortcut (from stage 1 to 3) possible?
• How to include new technologies? Transport and non-
transport technologies?
• How to include change in behaviour from generation
to generation?
• Etc…..
Car driver modal shares over time, per
age group
Example: City of Berlin.
More information about CREATE

www.create-mobility.eu

CREATE has received funding from the


European Union’s Horizon 2020 research
and innovation programme under
grant agreement N°636573