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Motivation is a psychological process that causes


the arousal, direction, and persistence of
voluntary actions that are goal directed.
 

that that
Motivation leads to results in Some level
is the Choice of of job
psychological behavior performance
process

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ΠMcClelland and colleagues studied the


behavioral effects of three needs
` Need for Achievement
` Need for Power

` Need for Affiliation

ΠEmphasized the Need for Achievement,


although they investigated all three needs
  
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Need for Power - a manifest (easily


perceived) need that concerns an
individual·s need to make an impact on
others, influence others, change people or
events, and make a difference in life. People
with a need for power look for positions of
leadership.
  


Need for Affiliation - a manifest (easily


perceived) need that concerns an
individual·s need to establish and maintain
warm, close, meaningful relationships with
other people. People with high need for
affiliation view the organization as a chance
to form new and satisfying relationships.
  


Need for Achievement ² a need that


concerns individuals· issues of
excellence, competition, challenging
goals, persistence, and overcoming
difficulties. A person needs to have
three distinct characteristics: personal
responsibility, feedback & moderate
risks.
 

Need for achievement was demonstrated in
KAKINADA PROJECT in our country way back in
| In this ambitious project, researchers
attempted to raise achievement motivation of
businessmen in kakinada. The attempt was a
success. Businessmen made plans that would help
them realise their goals to become successful
entrepreneurs & told each other about their goals &
their methods of reaching them. Businessmen
became more productive as entrepreneurs, they
started several large industries, enlarged their
business & hired more than 5000 people of their
village.


ΠNeeds are not permanently acquired.
ΠMethodology used by McClelland and his
associates to advocate the theory.
ΠMotives cannot be taught to adults. According
to researches acquisition of motives normally
occurs in childhood & it is very difficult to
change once it has been established.
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ΠSatisfaction Of Need Is The Means Of Motivation

ΠUnmet Need Motivates Behavior

ΠLower Level Of Need Must Be At Least Partially Met


Before Moving Higher
ΠWe All Have The Same Five Basic Needs
ΠOnce A Need Is Satisfied, It No Longer Motivates
Behavior
ΠEveryone Is Always Motivated By The Next Level Of
Unsatisfied Need ² Either Up Or Down
" 

SA
Esteem

Love (Social)

Safety & Security

Physiological
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Frederick Herzberg extended Maslow·s need
hierarchy theory.
The study consisted of intensive analysis of
´critical incidenceµ written by 200 engineers &
accountants in nine different companies in
Pittsburg area, USA.
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‡ Company policy & '*,-/)./0%1.)&'.+),&'%*
administration
‡ Supervision
‡ Interpersonal relations
‡ Working conditions ‡ Achievement
‡ Salary ‡ Achievement recognition
‡ Status ‡ Work itself
‡ Security ‡ Responsibility
‡ Advancement
‡ Growth

‡ Salary
Hygiene factors avoid
job dissatisfaction
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ΠHygiene factors motivates employees to high


achievement level.
ΠThe managers role is to eliminate dissatisfies.

ΠTo provide hygiene factors sufficient to meet


basic needs & then motivates to meet higher
order need & propel employees towards greater
achievements.
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ΠHerzberg was the first person to say that hygiene
factors are absolutely important to maintain the
HR of an organization.
ΠHe stated that there are few employers who are
still dissatisfied even if they receive a raise in their
income and other facilities.
ΠSo there should be a particular standard of
hygiene factor in the workplace which compels the
employers to be motivated by their job standard.
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ΠLimited by its methodology.
ΠThe reliability of Herzberg's theory is
questionable.
ΠThe theory to a degree is valid as it provides
explanation for job satisfaction. It is not really a
theory of motivation.
ΠThere is no overall measure of satisfaction was
utilized.
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ISSUE MASLOW HERZBERG
1. TYPE OF THEORY DESCRIPTIVE PRESCRIPTIVE
2. SATISFACTION UNSATISFIED NEEDS NEEDS CAUSES
PERFORMANCE ENERGIZE PERFORMANCE
RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR,THIS
BEHAVIOUR CAUSES
PERFORMANCE
3. EFFECT OF NEED A SATISFIED NEED IS NOT A A SATISFIED (HYGIENE)
SATISFACTION MOTIVATOR NEED IS NOT A
MOTIVATOR,OTHER
SATISFIED NEEDS ARE
MOTIVATORS.
4. NEED ORDER HIERARCHY OF NEEDS NO HIERARCHY
5. EFFECT OF PAY PAY IS A MOTIVATOR PAY IS NOT A MOTIVATOR
6. EFFECT OF NEEDS ALL NEEDS ARE ONLY SOME NEEDS ARE
MOTIVATORS AT VARIOUS MOTIVATORS
TIMES
7. WORKER LEVEL RELEVENT FOR ALL RELEVANT FOR
WORKERS PROFESSIONAL WORKERS.

ΠThe Royal Bank of Scotland Group (RBS) is one of the largest
financial services companies in the world. It provides a range of
services including banking and insurance. The RBS Group
operates in Europe, the US and Asia, serving more than 36
million customers world-wide. It employs more than 140,000
people.
ΠAs a major company, RBS needs to recruit the best employees
it can. RBS is a leading employer and therefore offers a range
of great job opportunities.
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ΠHerzberg's theory showed that certain motivation factors
needed to be in place first. These were called 'hygiene' factors,
for example, a clean workplace and good basic pay. RBS uses
a number of factors to motivate its people. These include
recognition for a job well done, opportunities for promotion
and other rewards.
ΠRBS has a special benefits scheme called Total Reward. At the
core of the scheme is good basic pay. RBS also provides many
flexible benefits in areas like health cover, pensions and
childcare. It uses this as part of its strategy to motivate
employees. RBS knows its employees are its future and
rewards and encourages them.
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