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WELCOME TO STAGE 1

PSYCHOLOGY 2019
Mrs Codrington (Cod-ring-ton)
WHAT WILL WE BE DOING THIS
SEMESTER?
2019 Semester 1 Outline
WE HAVE A WEEBLY PAGE!
stage1psychatfaith@weebly.com
Save this as a bookmark in your
browser – will use it every lesson.
ASSESSMENT TYPES
Skills and Application Tasks
 Topic Test: Introduction to Psychology 25% (Intro. To
Psychology)
 ‘Little Albert’ Analysis 25% (Intro. To Psychology)

Investigations Folio
• Issues Investigation (Emotion) 25%
• Practical Report (Social Behaviour) 25%

 End of semester examination


In year 11, the excuse ‘my USB crashed’ is not
accepted for missing deadlines, so……….

MAKE. SURE. YOU. SAVE. YOUR.


WORK. IN. MORE. THAN. ONE.
PLACE!!!!!!!
Some suggestions: USB, Home PC, Individual
network at Faith, friends house etc.
WHAT QUESTIONS DO YOU WANT
ANSWERED IN THIS COURSE?

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT


PSYCHOLOGY ALREADY?
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
 ‘Systematic study of thoughts, feelings and
behaviour and the factors that influence these’.

 Many definitions of Psychology

 Psychology is a SCIENCE

 No two people are the same!

 Main focus in Stage 1 Psychology is


BEHAVIOUR
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
WHAT IS BEHAVIOUR?
 Defined as any observable action (to be seen)
made by a living person or animal.

 Differs from thoughts and feelings how?


PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
 What is the difference?

 PSYCHOLOGY
 Trained in many different aspects of psychology
 Not able to prescribe medication (in Australia)
 Focus on specific behaviour problems or symptoms

 PSYCHIATRY
 Medical practitioner
 Focuses on biology of psychological disorders
 Prescribes medications
MANY TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGISTS!
• Counselling
• Educational
• Organisational
• Community
• Sports
• Health
• Clinical
• Vocational
• Academic
• Forensic
MEDICAL STUDENT SYNDROME
 As medical students learn about new illnesses,
they often "discover" that they have the
symptoms of the disease they are studying. This
happens very often.

 Not a true syndrome

 Parallels in psychology students.


 <-- study “medical” conditions such as Parkinson’s
Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease.
 “I’m pretty sure my Mum has Alzheimer’s”
MEDICAL STUDENT SYNDROME (CONT.)
 A large percentage of people have a psychological
disorder at some point in their lives.
 Appropriate treatment by professionals is vital
 Most people with psychological disorders live fulfilling lives;
empowerment.

 Students should never attempt to diagnose


themselves or others. Only qualified mental health
professionals are equipped to do this.
FOUR LEVELS OF
EXPLANATION OF
BEHAVIOUR
Year 11 Psychology
FOUR LEVELS OF EXPLANATION OF
BEHAVIOUR
 Human behaviour can be studied from many
different levels

 Explaining human behaviour as a holistic


concept

 The Four levels of Explanation:


 Biological

 Socio-Cultural

 Person

 Basic Processes
FOUR LEVELS OF EXPLANATION OF
BEHAVIOUR (CONT.)
 BIOLOGICAL
 The biological, physical and chemical factors
influencing behaviour:
- genetics (illnesses, addictions etc.)
- biochemistry (drugs and/or alcohol)
- neurology (brain matter and function)
- physiological responses (heart rate, blood
pressure, sweating)
- Hormones (testosterone, oestrogen,
adrenaline)
FOUR LEVELS OF EXPLANATION OF
BEHAVIOUR (CONT.)
 SOCIO CULTURAL
 Looks at the way a person’s social environment
influences behaviour
- Global (western/eastern)
- Culture
- Family and Social Networks
- Media
- Religion
FOUR LEVELS OF EXPLANATION OF
BEHAVIOUR (CONT.)
 PERSON
 Describes human behaviour as a result of
individual differences between people
- Age
- Gender
- Personality traits
FOUR LEVELS OF EXPLANATION OF
BEHAVIOUR (CONT.)
 BASIC PROCESSES
 Explains human behaviour as a result of a
person’s basic processes
 These processes are basic to all humans.
- perception
- learning
- cognition
- memory
VARIABLES
Independent, Dependent and Extraneous
VARIABLES
 Independent Variable (IV):
 Manipulated by the researcher
 Dependent Variable: (DV):
 Measured as a result of the IV

 Examples:
 Drinking water whilst driving increases
driver alertness

 The colour of a room affects students’ ability


to focus on their work
VARIABLES
 Extraneous Variables: Can affect the DV and therefore alter
the results.

 Examples of Extraneous Variables:


 Drinking water whilst driving increases driver alertness.
 Original level of alertness
 Time of day

 The colour of a room affects students’ ability to focus on their


work.
 The colour
 Size of the room
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Introduction to Psychology
RESEARCH DESIGNS
 The plans researchers use to answer their
question and hypothesis.

 Three types:
 Experimental
 Quantitative Observational
 Qualitative Observational
EXPERIMENTAL
 Aims to identify links between variables
 Controlled Experiment:
 Control group: does not receive the treatment (IV)
 Experimental group: does receive the treatment (IV)
EXPERIMENTAL
 Essential Elements:
 Presence of a control group
 Random Allocation of participants
 Hypothesis testing
 Pre and post testing
 IV is always manipulated
 Done in a controlled setting such as a lab
EXPERIMENTAL
 Advantages:
 Easy to replicate
 Maximises control of extraneous variables

 Generalisations can be made

 Explanations between variables


EXPERIMENTAL
 Disadvantages:
 May not be applicable to the real world
 May not represent entire population

 Ethical concerns

 Some variables can not be manipulated


QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATIONAL
 Allows for research in a natural setting
 Associations between variables

 Essential Feature: IV is NOT manipulated


QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATIONAL
 Advantages:
 Allows study of more complex aspects
 Allows study of variables which are unethical to
manipulate
 Allows for bigger sample sizes
QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATIONAL
 Disadvantages:
 Hard to replicate study
 Lack of control of variables

 Observer bias can alter the results

 Does not allow for generalisation of results


QUALITATIVE OBSERVATIONAL
 Uses words and language
 Can gain in-depth knowledge of a particular topic

 Useful if topic is not widely known


QUALITATIVE OBSERVATIONAL
 Types of Qualitative Designs:
 Focus group

 Survey
QUALITATIVE OBSERVATIONAL
 Focus Groups:
 Investigates people’s attitudes on a certain topic
 Informal interview using small group of people
(6-12)
 Series of questions used

 Facilitator leads the group discussion


QUALITATIVE OBSERVATIONAL
 Survey:
 Uses interviews or questionnaires to ask people
about their attitudes or behaviour about a given
topic
 Can be administered easily to large groups of
people
QUALITATIVE OBSERVATIONAL
 Advantages
 Possibly more convenient

 Significant amount of rich verbal data collected

 Opinions can be expressed

 Useful if little is known about topic


QUALITATIVE OBSERVATIONAL
 Disadvantages
 Can not generalised results

 Presence of the observer could affect what is


discussed
 Bias
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Remember:

Experimental = design we control

Quantitative Observational = design we observe

Qualitative = design we discuss


RESEARCH METHODS
Introduction to Psychology
RESEARCH METHODS
TYPE OF DATA COLLECTED
Three main types:
 Objective Quantitative

 Subjective Quantitative

 Qualitative

Objective
 Free from interpretation and/or bias

Subjective
• Can be altered by opinions and bias
RESEARCH METHODS
 Quantitative
 Data using numbers

 Qualitative
 Data using words, language and pictures
RESEARCH METHODS
 Objective Quantitative Measures
 Standardised Tests:
 Scores on test have the same meaning.
 Used the same way on each occasion.

 Physiological Measures
 Measure of body functions
RESEARCH METHODS
 Subjective Quantitative Measures
Rating scales
 Participants select their response from a fixed statement.
 Likert scale frequently used.
 ‘Psychology is awesome’
 1=strongly agree, 2=agree, 3=neutral, 4=disagree, 5=strongly disagree
RESEARCH METHODS
 Qualitative
 Open ended and very general items.

 Questionnaires

 Surveys

 Interview responses
MEASURING DATA IN
PSYCHOLOGY
Introduction to Psychology
MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Descriptive Statistics
 Central Tendency
MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Descriptive Statistics
 Summary of scores.
 Can be represented in a table or a graph.

 Table
Pocket Money Frequency
$20 2
$30 4
$40 6
$50 3
$60 1
MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY

Histogram
MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Central Tendency
 Summarises the centre or mid point of a distribution:

 Three measures of central tendency


 Mean
 Median
 Mode
 Range
MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Mean
 Most commonly used.
 Also known as the ‘arithmetic average.’
 Adding values together then divide by the total number of values:

 3, 4,5,7,2,3,5

 3+4+5+7+2+3+5 = 29

 29/7 = 4.1
MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Median
 Score found in exact middle of distribution.
 Used when extreme outliers are present in distribution.

 Calculated by placing values in ascending order and finding the


middle number:

 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 125 = 7

 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 = 6+7 = 13/2 = 6.5

 E.g. 3,4,6,7,8, 10, 125 outlier > the mean = 23.2 = skewed
MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Mode
 Most frequently occurring value in a set of scores.
 Only used when data is in categories.

 Calculated by counting which value occurs the most:

 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6, 7 = 5 (occurs three times)


MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Range
 Difference between greatest and least values in a
set of data.

 Example:
 3,4,5,7,2,3,5

 7-2 = 5 is the range


MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Normal Distribution
 Majority of scores fall in the middle and the mean, median
and mode have the same value.

 Normal distribution > 68% of scores lie within one SD


below the mean and one standard deviation above the
mean.
EVALUATING DATA IN
PSYCHOLOGY
Introduction to Psychology
MEASURING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Evaluate the results
 Validity
 Reliability
 Representativeness
 Sample size
EVALUATING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Representativeness
 Important that participants represent the whole population in
question.

 Studying societies attitudes towards migration:


 Using all female participants between 20 and 40 years
 Using both genders equally aged between 18-75.
EVALUATING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Sample Size
 Important to consider wether sample size is big enough to draw
conclusions from.

 30 participants used for attitudes towards migration?


EVALUATING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Validity
 Refers to wether a test accurately measures what it claims to.

 Measuring time with a faulty watch? High or low validity?

 If high in validity, conclusions can be drawn.

 External validity: results achieved in a controlled environment


can be applied to real life scenario.

 Extraneous variables.
 Researcher making impossible conclusions.
EVALUATING DATA IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Reliability
 Wether results can be consistently achieved.
 Consistency of results.

 Inconsistencies in repeated experiment.


 Different participants.
 Conditions during data collection.

 A measure can be reliable (consistent) without being valid


(accurately measuring), but a measure can not be valid unless it
is reliable.
ETHICS
Introduction to Psychology
Stage 1 Psychology
ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY
• Ethics:
• Needs to be approved by ethics committee.
• Obligation of Psychologist to ensure participants safety.

• There are 5 main ethical principles.


• Informed consent
• Voluntary participation
• Confidentiality
• Right to withdraw
• Debriefing
ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Informed Consent:
 Informed of all rights, risks and aim of investigation.
 First language to participants.
 Must never involve bribery or coercion.
 Consent form essential.

 Participants under 18 must have parent/caregiver consent.


ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Voluntary Participation
 Participants can not be bribed, threatened or coerced.
 No negative consequences for refusal.
ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Confidentiality
 No personal information released.
 Anonymity is acceptable.
 Applies to storage of data, access of data, publication.
ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Right to withdraw
 Withdraw at any time without explanation.
 Will not incur negative consequences.
ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Debriefing
 Researcher explains process.
 Answers any questions.
 Informs participants of deception (if any).

 Accurate Reporting
 Duty to publish their results.
 Give complete information about research.
 Fabricate results.
 Take credit for other psychologists/researchers work.
ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Deception
 Some investigation needs bias to establish data.
 Only done if no significant physical, emotional, psychological,
financial or social harm is done.
 Only used if there is no other way to achieve aim of research.
 Must be informed in debriefing.
ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY
 Research on animals
 Code of ethics in Australia is very strict.
 Researcher needs to consider:
 Welfare of the animal
 Use of animal justified
 Avoid pain and distress
 Know the correct maintenance, care and handling of animal
A CLASS DIVIDED
Ethics – Stage 1 Psychology
A CLASS DIVIDED
 Experiment conducted in 1968

 Jane Elliot, a teacher in a small town in Iowa,


divided her year 3 class in accordance with eye
colour and did a daring demonstration of
discrimination.

 Will examine the ethics, research design and


method used.
THE LITTLE ALBERT
EXPERIMENT
Stage 1 Psychology
LITTLE ALBERT EXPERIMENT
 Conducted by John B. Watson in 1920

 Wanted to investigate if fear could be controlled


and/or manipulated in humans

 Infant chosen given the nickname ‘Little Albert’


CLASSICAL OR PAVLOVIAN
CONDITIONING

Based on the work of


Ivan Pavlov
 1849-1936
 Russian physician/
neurophysiologist
 Studied digestive
secretions
 Discovered Classical
Conditioning
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Neutral Stimulus
No response

Neutral Stimulus: Little Albert did not have a negative reaction to


the white rat. Gained a neutral response from Albert.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Unconditioned stimulus
(striking steel bar)
Unconditioned response
(crying/fear)
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Neutral stimulus

Unconditioned response
(Crying/fear)
Unconditioned stimulus
(Loud noise)
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
 Repetition of pairing (rat + noise)
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
 Classical conditioning achieved

Conditioned stimulus
(White rat)

Conditioned response
(crying/fear)
...even without striking the bar!
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
 Recap

 White rat started out as a neutral stimulus

 Loud noise was an unconditioned stimulus

 When Albert started crying upon hearing the unpleasant


noise, it was an unconditioned response

 No learning had occurred


CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
 Repeatedly pair the unpleasant sound + sight of white rat,
Albert was eventually be conditioned to cry/be fearful upon
seeing the white rat

 The white rat is now a conditioned stimulus

 Albert crying to the sight of the white rat is now a


conditioned response

 Behaviour has been learnt

 Behaviour modification possible through conditioning