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Sub-Title

CPE5500 PERKEMBANGAN KERJAYA


CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Chapter 8
The Role of Race and Ethnicity in Career Choice,
Development, and Adjustment
Prepared by:
Nur Syuhada Binti Abdul Rasid
GS52492
Master in Education (Guidance & Counseling)
Semester 1 2018/2019
What we will learn in this chapter?

Education &
Cultural Values Occupational
Holland’s Theory

Acculturation
Work Adjustment Theory
Role Models
Career Gottfredson Theory of
Cultural INTRODUCTION Circumscription &
Perception of Theories
Factors Compromise
Discrimination
Perceived Barriers and Career Development &
Supports Career Construction
Ethnic Identity
Social Cognitive Career
Occupational Aspirations and Implication Theory
Expectations

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INTRODUCTION
• Each person’s ability should be the sole determinant of
his or her success and that opportunity should be
available to all to seek that success.
• Dream and expectations about work and career are
very much shaped by individual’s cultural expectations
and by the society in which they live.
• In reality individuals are influenced by multiple
contextual influences simultaneously ex. gender, racial,
ethnic and social class.
• The role of racial/ethnic disparities between
educational and occupational in understanding
influences on individual’s career- and work-related
decisions.
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EDUCATIONAL & OCCUPATIONAL
• Racial/ethnic minority are likely to drop high school, not
complete college, and be overrepresented in lower-paying
and lower-skilled occupations (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
2011). Ex. African & Hispanic much lower graduate high
school than Whites and Asian Americans.

• Poorer educational and occupational outcomes are


disproportionately represented among racial/ethnic
minorities relative to their numbers in the population.

• Each individual’s career and work choices are shaped by his


or her cultural context, and racial/ethnic background is a
large component of that context.

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EDUCATIONAL & OCCUPATIONAL

• Occupational attainment :
• Racial/ethnics different– such as:
• African and Hispanic = Food preparation, Building cleaning,
transportation, and service occupations.
• Asian Americans = Scientific and engineering occupations and
service occupations.
• Educational different-such as:
• Blue-collar – African Americans & Hispanic
• White-collar – Whites & Asians
• Blue collar position more likely to lose their jobs than those in
white-collar professions (Economic Policy Institute, 2010).

Statistic from Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011


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CAREER THEORIES
1 Holland’s Theory

2 Work Adjustment Theory

Career Theories
Gottfredson Theory of
3 Circumscription & Compromise

Career Development & Career


4 Construction

5 Social Cognitive Career Theory

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CAREER THEORIES Holland’s Theory

• Career choice is an expression of an individual’s personality.


• Cultural, personal factors & environments creat distinctive
personality types.
• Six basic personality & environment types RIASEC:
(R-realistic, I-investigative, A-artistic, S-social, E-enterprising, and
C-conventional)
• Help people understand their personality types with work
environments.
• Strong match between individual personality & work
environment relate to high or low job satisfaction and job
tenure.

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CAREER THEORIES Holland’s Theory

• Weakness in Holland’ Theory to diverse population:


1. Ignored the barriers and limited opportunities faced by many
individuals (Hardin, 2007).
2. Does not explicitly address the role of culture in developing
vocational identities.
3. Does not pay marked attention to the various societal influences that
may affect how an individual perceives his or her environment
(Hardin, 2007).
• Cultural validity of Holland’s Theory has provided evidence for
its use with diverse population.
• No evidence show RIASEC for spesific racial/ethnic has direct
or indirect influence of cultural variables on vocational
interest.
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CAREER THEORIES The Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
• Person-environment fit model that predicts how well
individuals will adjust to their job environments
(Darwis,2005).
• Focuses on :
– How well individual’s abilities match the abilities required by the
job.(e.g.,individuals’ satisfaction)
– How well individuals’ need and work values are met by the reinforcers
in the environment (e.g.,individuals’ satisfaction)
• If Individuals are both satisfied and satisfactory, they are
predicted to stay in the job environment (Swanson &
Schneider, Chapter2, this volume)
• Based on ‘Individual Differences Perspective” embrace as
viewing “people as individuals and not as members of groups”
(Dawis, 1994).
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CAREER THEORIES The Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)

• Inaccurate way to estimate abilities and needs on group


membership. But focus on individual’s reinforcement history.
• Predicted that race and ethnicity influence person-
environment fit which in turn influences person’s job
satisfaction.
• The effect clearly change the individuals’ satisfaction if
variable occur such as discrimination may moderate the
satisfaction.
• Race/ethnicity influence the perception of person-
environment fit, which influence TWA outcome variables,
such as job satisfaction.

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CAREER THEORIES Gottfredson Theory of Circumscription &
Compromise

• Theoretical framework to understand the


developmental processes that youth undergo in
beginning to understand the world of work.
• Focus on:
– How children and adolescents learn about various
occupations and about their identity and sense of self and
to how they use this information to determine which
occupations fit them.
– Development within context, power differentials in
occupational landscape, and social values and prestige
associated with various types of work.

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CAREER THEORIES Gottfredson Theory of Circumscription &
Compromise

4 CRITICAL DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES INFLUENCE CAREER


DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS

4. Development of
3. Elimination of an understanding
1. Growth in 2. Development of Least Favourite of external
Cognitive Abilities Self Vocational Option constraints on
(Circumscription) vocational choices
(Compromise)

• This theory help people limit the career development option by consider
opportunities and access to various types of work equally available to
individuals from minority background.
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CAREER THEORIES Career Development & Career Construction

• Super’s Development Theory view that “individuals


actively create their own subjective and personal
career realities” (Hartung & Taber,2008).
• Racial and ethnic background as part of the cultural
milieu(person’s social environment) in which children
begin to develop a sense of self-concept that
becomes implemented in occupational choices.
• Family support was related to perceptions of barriers
and career outcome expectations, and teacher
support was related to identifying with school.

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CAREER THEORIES Career Development & Career Construction

• The self as shaped by culture : “identities are co-


constructed by a psychological self and social
context”.
• Social context is shaped by the individual’s cultural
group membership.
• Individuals are always influenced by others :
because of the important placed on valuing others’
view.

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CAREER THEORIES Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)

• The social cognitive career framework asserts that both


person inputs (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, ability, status) and
background contextual affordances create the learning
experiences to which an individual is exposed;these learning
experiences influence self-efficacy expectations and outcome
expectations, which, in turn, influence interests, goals, and
actions.
Input
(Gender, race/ethnicity, ability,
status) Self-efficacy & - Interest
Learning
Outcome - Goals
Experiences
Expectations - Action
Background Contextual
Affordances

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CULTURAL FACTORS
Cultural Values 1

Acculturation 2

Role Models 3

Perception of Discrimination 4 Cultural Factors

Perceived Barriers and Supports 5

Ethnic Identity 6

Occupational Aspirations and Expectations 7

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CULTURAL FACTORS
Cultural Values

• Cultural values is standards of what is


acceptable or unacceptable, important or
unimportant, right or wrong, workable or
unworkable.
• Familismo and colectivismo.
• Influence participants’ communication styles
at work, their ideas of career and vocational
success, their sense of family obligations, and
how career exploration was facilitate.
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CULTURAL FACTORS
Acculturation
• Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems
from blending between cultures. The effects of acculturation can be seen at
multiple levels in both the original and newly adopted cultures.

Vocational
Interest

Educational
Career Self-
& Career
efficacy
Aspiration
Acculturation

Job Career
Satisfaction Maturity

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CULTURAL FACTORS
Ethnic Identity

• Ethnic identity development or ethnic-racial identity development


includes the identity formation in an individual's self-categorization in,
and psychological attachment to, ethnic group.
• Ethnic identity is related to vocational development is refer to this
relationship:
Career Barriers

Career Interest

Career Outcome Expectation

Career Self-efficacy

Racial Ideology

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CULTURAL FACTORS
Role Models

• Act as mentors, provide vocational information, and both directly and


indirectly influence career decisions, often playing a critical role in career
development (Gibson, 2004).
• Participants identified models that contributed to their community and
reported receiving emotional support from their models.

Family

Age Profession
Role
Models
Ethnicity Gender

Race
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CULTURAL FACTORS
Perception of Discrimination

• Occupational segregation and differential


rates of unemployment between racial/ethnic
groups may be due to:
– In part
– Restriction of career
– Work choices
Based on bias and prejudice in the hiring process.
• Effect restricts their opportunities for
employment and vocational choice.
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CULTURAL FACTORS
Perceived Barriers and Supports

• Ethnic minority perceived more educational and


career barriers. They also to have lower efficacy to
cope with their perceived barriers.
• Perceive educational barrier may influence of
gender, generation level, and parents education.
• General support and kinship support can be very
positive influence for persons related to school
engagement, career aspirations, expectations for
future career success, and important of future work.

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CULTURAL FACTORS
Occupational Aspirations and Expectations

• Career aspirations represent vocational preferences


or career possibilities if ideal conditions are present,
whereas career expectations can be thought of as
career pursuits that are realistic and accessible.
• Career aspiration may not be related to ethnic
background, but the perception of barriers and
opportunity to achive those aspirations is related to
ethnic background.
• Race and ethnicity do affect career aspiration and
expectations.

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IMPLICATIONS

Career Counseling Models Incorporating Culture

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

Practical Implications of
Research on the cultural Counselor Cognitions
factors

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IMPLICATIONS
Career Counseling Models Incorporating Culture

• Severel models have been developed to help counselors


integrate and infuse culture into career counseling.

• Career counselors are encourage to consider how culture


influences the development of the self, how culture shapes
the view of career concerns as a problem, and how culture
helps to shape the goals that clients have for counseling.

• Counselors need to understand their own cultural sense of


self to ensure that they do not impose their values on their
clients.

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IMPLICATIONS
Counselor Cognitions

• Developing a plan of action


1.

• Implementing The Plan and


Self Monitoring
2.

• Evaluating The Plan


3.

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IMPLICATIONS
Practical Implications of Research on the
cultural factors
• Explicitly attend to racism and oppression and the role that they may have
played in suppressing options or creating barrier.
• Help clients develop strategies to augment resistance to racism.
• Ask client about the expectations who have been important positive or
negative role models.
• Cultural background affect perception that career or work choice.
• Culture shapes the perception that career concerns are a problem or that
career development is a process.
• Culture will shape career adaptability, including how clients develop resiliency
and future orientation.
• Culture values are more influential for some clients.
• Ask about potential barriers and supports.
• Determin if the client indentifies differences between his or her aspiration and
realistic occupational goals.

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TERIMA KASIH / THANK YOU
www.upm.edu.my

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