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You are on page 1of 31

This chapter contains

This chapter is introducing matrices. It is divided into three main sections.

- Section 1 is discuss some of the basic properties and types of matrices

- Section 2 the operations of matrices strictly from a mathematical

perspective is given with examples.

- Section 3 the way to find invers of the square matrix with size 2*2, and

3*3 is discussed in details.

2

Section 1

Matrix: An Algebraic Definition

Algebraic definition of a matrix: a table of scalars in square brackets.

Matrix dimension is the width and height of the table, n x m.

Typically we use dimensions 2 x 2 for 2D work, and 3 x 3 for 3D

work.

rows

a b

columns

c d

3

Matrix Components

Entries are numbered by row and column, eg. mij is the entry in row

i, column j.

Start numbering at 1, not 0.

4

Square Matrices

Same number as rows as columns.

Entries mii are called the diagonal entries. The others are called

nondiagonal entries

5

Diagonal Matrices

A diagonal matrix is a square matrix whose nondiagonal elements

are zero.

6

The Identity Matrix

The identity matrix of dimension n, denoted In, is the n x n matrix with 1s

on the diagonal and 0s elsewhere.

7

Vectors as Matrices

A row vector is a 1 x n matrix.

A column vector is an n x 1 matrix.

They were pretty much interchangeable in the lecture on Vectors.

They’re not once you start treating them as matrices.

8

Transpose of a Matrix

The transpose of an r x c matrix M is a c x r matrix called MT.

Take every row and rewrite it as a column.

Equivalently, flip about the diagonal

9

Transpose of a Vector

If v is a row vector, vT is a column vector and vice-versa

10

Basic Matrix Operations

Addition, and Subtraction

a b e f a e b f

c d g

h c g d h

Just add elements

a b e f a e b f

c d g

h c g d h

Just subtract elements

11

Multiplying By a Scalar

Can multiply a matrix by a scalar.

Result is a matrix of the same dimension.

To multiply a matrix by a scalar, multiply each component by the

scalar.

12

Matrix Multiplication

Multiplying an r x n matrix A by an n x c matrix B gives an r x c

result AB.

13

Matrix Times Column Vector Multiplication

Can multiply a matrix times a column vector.

14

Example

15

Another Way of Looking at It

16

2 x 2 Case

17

2 x 2 Example

18

3 x 3 Case

19

3 x 3 Example

20

Identity Matrix

Recall that the identity matrix I (or In) is a diagonal

matrix whose diagonal entries are all 1.

Now that we’ve seen the definition of matrix

multiplication, we can say that IM = MI = M for all

matrices M (dimensions appropriate)

21

Matrix Multiplication Facts

Not commutative: in general AB BA.

Associative:

(AB)C = A(BC)

Associates with scalar multiplication:

k(AB) = (kA)B =A(kB)

(AB)T = BTAT

(M1M2M3…Mn)T = MnT …M3TM2TM1T

22

Row Vector Times Matrix Multiplication

Can multiply a row vector times a matrix

23

Determinants

Determinant of order 2

a11 a12

Consider a 2 2 matrix: A

a22

a21

Determinant of A, denoted , is

|A | a number and

can be evaluated by

a11 a12

| A | a11a22 a12 a21

a21 a22

24

easy to remember (for order 2 only)..

a11 a12

| A | a11a22 a12 a21

a21 a22

- +

1 2

Example: Evaluate the determinant: 3 4

1 2

1 4 2 3 2

3 4

25

The following properties are true for

determinants of any order.

1. If every element of a row (column) is zero,

e.g., 1 2

1 0 2 0 0 , then |A| = 0.

0 0

determinant of a matrix

2. |AT| = |A| = that of its transpose

3. |AB| = |A||B|

26

a11 a12

For any 2x2 matrix A

a21 a22

1 a22 a12

Its inverse can be written as A 1

a

A 21 a11

1 0

Example: Find the inverse of A

1 2

The determinant of A is -2

1 0

Hence, the inverse of A is 1

A

1/ 2 1/ 2

How to find an inverse for a 3x3 matrix?

27

Determinants of order 3

1 2 3

Consider an example: A 4 5 6

7 8 9

1 2 3

4 5 1 2 1 2

A 4 5 6 3 6 9

7 8 7 8 4 5

7 8 9

3 3 6 6 9 3 0

using other rows or columns 28

Inverse of a 33 matrix

1 2 3

Cofactor matrix of A 0 4 5

1 0 6

4 5 0 5 0 4

A11 24 A12 5 A13 4

0 6 1 6 1 0

2 3 1 3 1 2

A21 12 A22 3 A23 2

0 6 1 6 1 0

2 3 1 3 1 2

A31 2 A32 5 A33 4

4 5 0 5 0 4

29

1 2 3

Cofactor matrix of A 0 4 5 is then given by:

1 0 6

24 5 4

12 3 2

2 5 4

30

1 2 3

Inverse matrix of A 0 4 5 is given by:

1 0 6

24 5 4 24 12 2

T

1 1 1

A 12 3 2 5 3 5

A 22

2 5 4 4 2 4

12 11 6 11 1 11

5 22 3 22 5 22

2 11 1 11 2 11

31

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