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Phased Array Inspection\Applications

Olympus NDT

Singapore November 16, 2009

Confidential – For Internal Use Only


Presentation Overview
The intent of this presentation is to provide a basic
understanding of the equipment considerations for
the various applications being utilized for phased
array inspections in the construction welding and
Oil and Gas Industries and to demonstrate how this
technology is benefiting clients today.
 Why Purchase Phased Array Technology?
 Application Basics – Instrumentation,
Probes, Software, etc.
 Personnel Training and Certification
 Code Considerations
 Manual Vs Semi-Auto Vs Full Mechanized
 What is New - Scanners
 Amplitude vs Zone Discrimination
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Why Phased Array Technology?
Generally all the reasons that justify the purchase of phased array
equipment in this market fall into 1 or more of 3 categories

 A Faster Inspection – Performing the same or improved inspection as


conventional UT with greater higher speed, repeatability, and procedure
compliance.
 A Better Inspection
– Overcoming Access limitations
– Better detection and sizing of flaws
– Easier characterization of flaws and geometry
– Reducing dependence on the skill of the operator to include
consistent results in manual UT applications.
– Ability to record digital data and retain inspection records
 Replacement of Radiography
– No radiation hazard
– Does not interfere with production in the work place
– Depth and height sizing that is not possible with RT
– Permanent inspection records to replace film
– Code Compliance
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Omniscan Family of UT\PA Products
 Although any of the instruments can be used for manual inspections, the following series
of applications will focus on the entry level phased array models specifically designed for
Manual Only applications.

• UT2ch
• UT4ch 16:16M •16:16 •32:32
• UT8ch 16:64M •16:128 •32:128

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Code\Procedure Compliance
 The best case scenario to implement phased array with respect
to procedure/code compliance is to comply with the existing
conventional UT codes\procedures and go above and beyond
them with the phased array technology.
 For many of the manual inspections, only minor changes need to
be made to existing procedures to accommodate phased array
inspections.
 Phased Array technology is not a new inspection method but
rather a new UT technique. Once the sound is in the material, the
physics are essentially the same with few exceptions.
 As part of a sale, ONDT makes available generic procedure
templates for API, ASME, AWS, CC2235, etc code inspections

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Code Cases

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Manual Vs Semi-Auto Vs Full-Mechanized
 The following series of slides is intended to demonstrate typical
inspections that being performed throughout the oil and gas and
construction welding industries.
 These applications are divided into 3 distinct groups that effect
the price, time to implement including order reception and
training, and ultimately the type and quality of data that is
acquired.
– MANUAL
– SEMI-AUTOMATED
– FULL-MECHANIZED
 Each application presented will include a brief description of the
equipment, initial justification for purchasing phased array,
personnel training requirements and pictures and data samples of
the inspection.
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Manual Inspections
 Manual inspections are defined as those that do not require
encoded data recording. The end result of manual inspections is
a paper/electronic record that states an inspector complied with a
procedure but would not include reproducible data other than a
screen shot.
 Manual inspections are considered entry level and require the
least amount of training and implementation time as most
procedures and codes can be complied with “as is” without
engineering relief.
 Manual inspections utilize the entry level systems such as
Omniscan 16:16M and 16:64M. All the instruments can be used
for manual inspections but if no encoders are required the most
cost effective choice is the Manual models listed above.

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Manual Inspections –Inspection of Plate and Pipe Welds to API-
UT-2 (Cont.)
 All A-scans are required to be calibrated for sensitivity, time of flight, DAG/TCG.

 All A-scans can be verified using convention UT techniques for exit point, angle verification, etc.

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Manual Inspections –Inspection of Plate and Pipe Welds to API-
UT-2 (Cont.)
 Main benefit is fast detection and ability to size and characterize of flaws

ID Connected Crack

Multiple facets and edges visible in the A-


scan and sector scan. Distinct start and stop
on A-scan.
Significant walk to the signal as the probe is
moved in and out from the weld. (See echo
dynamic envelope on A-scan in 70 degree
linear channel)
Detection and correct plot from both sides of
the weld.
Best detection on the sector scan and linear
70 degree channels.
Plots to the ID (B0) skip line.

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Manual Inspections –Inspection of Plate and Pipe Welds to API-
UT-2 (Cont.)
 Main benefit is fast detection and ability to size and characterize of flaws
Lack of Side Wall Fusion
Plots correctly on weld fusion line.
Significantly different response from each
side of the weld. Near side is typical >6 dB
above reference sensitivity.
Detected by 75% of focal laws in sector scan
from the same position.
A-scan fast rise and fall time with short
pulse duration indicative of planar flaw.
No multiple facets or tips.
Detected with high amplitude on all 4
channels from near side, and one or more
from far side.
Skewing the probe slightly does not produce
multiple peaks or jagged facets as in a crack.
Mode converted multiple signals that rise
and fall together and maintain equal
separation.

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Manual Inspections –Inspection of Plate and Pipe Welds to API-
UT-2 (Cont.)
 Main benefit is fast detection and ability to size and characterize of flaws

Porosity
Multiple signal responses varying in
amplitude and position.
Plots correctly to weld volume.
Start and stop positions blend with
background at low amplitude.
May not be detected from both sides of the
weld.
Best characterized by sector scan and/or
linear 52 and 60 channels.
Typically not greater then reference
sensitivity and difficult to distinguish from
slag.
A-scan slow rise and fall time with long
pulse duration indicative of non-planar flaw.
Best characterization is achieved on full V-
path skip (Between B0 and T1)

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Manual Inspections –Inspection of Plate and Pipe Welds to API-
UT-2 (Cont.)
 Main benefit is fast detection and ability to size and characterize of flaws

Outside Diameter Toe Crack


Multiple facets and edges visible in the A-
scan and sector scan.
Significant walk to the signal as the probe is
moved in and out from the weld. (See echo
dynamic envelope on A-scan in 70 degree
linear channel)
Detection and plot from both sides of the
weld.
Best characterized on the sector scan and
linear 52 degree channels.
Plots to the OD (T1) skip line.

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Manual Inspections –Inspection of Plate and Pipe Welds to API-
UT-2 (Cont.)
 Main benefit is fast detection and ability to size and characterize of flaws

Inadequate Penetration
High amplitude signal with significant walk
or travel over the ID (B0) skip line. (See
envelope on A-scan)
Similar response and plot from both sides of
the weld. Plots right at weld centerline at ID
(B0).
Do not confuse with excessive root
reinforcement (convexity) or ID centerline
crack.
Detected on all channels with highest
amplitude on 70 degree linear scan.
A-scan fast rise and fall time with short
pulse duration indicative of a planar flaw.

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Manual Inspections –Inspection of Plate and Pipe Welds to API-
UT-2 (Cont.)
 Main benefit is fast detection and ability to size and characterize of flaws

Slag
Multiple facets and edges visible in the A-
scan and sector scan.
A-scan slow rise and fall time with long
pulse duration indicative of non-planar flaw.
Typically lower amplitude than planer flaws.
Similar response and plot from both sides of
the weld. Plots to weld volume.
Difficult to distinguish from porosity.
Best characterized with sector scan.

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AWS D1.1 But Weld Inspection

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Manual Inspections – Weld Quality
 Placing the data in the weld correctly assists the operator in determining flaw type and location.
Examples of sector scan and linear scan of SWLF.

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Show Beam Tool Example for T-Joint

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Manual Inspections – Inspection of Bolting for Cracks and Corrosion
 One zone was created for the body (non-threaded) area and one zone for the threaded area on the
near side. The only difference between the set up for the two zones were adjustments to the range
and gain to account for the longer sound path.
 Moving the probe back and forth and side to side, a full volumetric inspection can be achieved from
either side. Care must be taken to maneuver the probe around the retaining pin hole to ensure
complete coverage. The 15 degree sector scan allows you to steer the beam under this obstruction.

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Show Beam Tool Example for Bolting

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Manual Inspections – Inspection of Bolting for Cracks and Corrosion

 Corroded bolt inspected in place showing complete thread loss from 24-33mm

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Omniscan Phased Array Inspection Bridge Pin Bolting

Using a longitudinal sector scan from -15 to 15 degrees, all areas of the bridge pin
bolting can be inspected from one surface. Total length on pin is 10 inches

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Omniscan Phased Array Inspection Bridge Pin Bolting

While viewing the 12.5 degree focal law, the upper threads, the EDM notch in the bolt
body, and the backwall of the lower lip can be seen in the S-scan and A-scan.
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Omniscan Phased Array Inspection of Riser Nuts

Typical Omniscan application using longitudinal wave sector scan focused at the
area of interest in the nut.

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Manual Inspections - Measurement of complex geometry

 In the example below there is an acceptable length of non penetration that cannot exceed 10mm. This
can be easily measured by using the delta between the two signals from the sector scan.

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Manual Inspections – Heavy Wall Vessel Crack Detection and Sizing
 Sector scan image at over 100mm in depth detecting ID connected thermal fatigue crack

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High Temperature In-Service Piping and Vessel Inspection
300 degrees F – 150 degrees celsius

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Manual Inspections – Hydrogen Induced Crack (HIC) Detection and Sizing

 The corrosion mapping vender has to make a decision. Is it corrosion? Is it a lamination from
the pre-service?, is it spot inclusions from the pre-service? or is it Hydrogen Induced Cracking
that could rupture at any time?

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Hydrogen Induced Crack (HIC) Detection and Sizing (cont.)
 As the probe is moved left and right and back and forth the side step cracking can be tracked
in real depth display allowing the operator to easily determine severity, depth, and
characterization of the HIC
 The two images below show actual HIC side step cracking and inclusions and spot
laminations that are not considered detrimental to the vessel

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In-Service Crack Detection

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Manual Inspections Conclusions
 Low cost entry level instrumentation
 Short training requirements and learning curve due to simplified
software and similarity to conventional UT inspections
 Data records limited to printed reports and screen captures
 Easy to implement with existing procedures. Typically does not
require formal qualification or engineering relief from code
requirements.
 Typically can be used with existing calibration blocks.
 Dramatically reduces dependency on the skill of the operator and
increases production speed and consistency
 Most of these inspections can be easily automated with the same
basic technique and addition of scanners and encoders

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Show Epoch 1000 Brochure

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Omniscan Demo for Manual Inspection
-Set up
-Calibration
-Inspection
-Report

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Semi-automated Inspections
 Addition of scanners and encoders to record data
 Provides digital data of weld inspections that is repeatable and auditable
using the Omniscan or computer based software -Tomoview
 Allows advanced software features including weld overlays, sizing
algorithms, custom displays, advanced measurement tools, etc.
 Low cost portable systems now allow NDT service companies and
fabrication shops to offer advanced AUT solutions that are have
historically been cost prohibitive and required an enormous amount of
expertise
 Use of phased array technology allows low cost magnetic one-line
scanners to replace fully automated raster scanning motorized
equipment by using S-scans and E-scans for coverage
 Requires training and expertise beyond what is required for the manual
applications
 The typical customer for these systems is a service company or
fabrication shop that has manual level II UT expertise but little or no AUT
expertise

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Omniscan Family of UT\PA Products
 The next series of applications that describe the semi-automated applications will be
utilizing the Omniscan family of instruments that include advanced software interface,
encoders and scan parameter controls.

• UT2ch 16:16M •16:16 •32:32


• UT4ch 16:64M •16:128 •32:128
• UT8ch

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Computer Based Phased Array Solutions
Focus LT (32:128, 64:128)

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Semi-automated Inspections
 Automated means that the movement of
the probes and every A-scan is encoded to
a reference on the weld or component with
an X,Y position so that the software has
the ability to display the data in a top view
(C-scan), side view (B-scan), end view (D-
scan) or the various displays unique to
phased array.
 Semi-automated is defined as a scanner
that does not require motors or motion
controllers. It is typically a magnetic wheel
scanner that contains one or more probes
and its movement is controlled by
someone pushing it.
 Semi-automated scanners typically are
small, portable, do not require any power,
and can interface with a simple umbilical
and manual water pump.
 The data generated by the semi-automated
scanners is the same as if acquired by
motorized scanners.

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Semi-automated Inspections
 The production rate, weld process, diameter and thickness will have a dramatic effect on the
quality of the data and ultimately the inspection results.
 The best case scenario is automated weld process on 12mm + thickness with smooth (not
flushed) weld crowns and consistent root geometry.
 The worst case scenario is manual stick welds on small diameter thin wall material with
inconsistent root geometry and large inconsistent weld crowns.

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TOFD – What is it and why do we use it

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Small Diameter Tubing
ASME B31.1 and B31.3

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ONDT Cobra Scanner

Show Cobra Scanner Movie


Show Cobra Data in Tomoview

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Semi Automated Inspections – ASME Code Case 2235 PA
inspection for the replacement of radiography
 Small portable magnetic scanner does not require power or complex motion controllers
 Combines TOFD and Phased Array for detailed defect detection and sizing
 Less than 3 hours of up front engineering to include creation of scan plan, inspection strategy,
calibration, and equipment mobilization
 Using existing ID/OD notch and SDH type calibration standards typical of ASME Sec VIII
 No power required. 100% battery operated inspection using Omniscan 32:128 with PA and
TOFD accessories
 Can be used on material thickness from 12mm to 100MM+

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Semi Automated Inspections – Heavy Wall Power Piping Inspection to ASME
B31.1 and B31.3 (Cont)
 100mm+ full volumetric inspection
 Lack of fusion easily characterized,
sized, and recorded for code
accept/reject
 100% portable battery operated
inspection utilizing Omniscan 32:128

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Semi Automated Inspections – Heavy Wall Power Piping Inspection to ASME
B31.1 and B31.3
 Replaces radiography and radiation hazard for increased productivity.
 Provides detailed defect depth, height and length sizing
 Computer based software utilizing weld overlays, advanced focal low programming, and
custom displays
 15 minute per weld on 100mm + 10-20 inch diameter power piping
 One side and two sided inspections for pipe-pipe, pipe-elbow, pipe to flange, etc.
 Utilizes standard ASME type calibration blocks
 Typical instrumentation is Focus LT 32:128 and Omniscan 32:128 with Tomoview LT for
analysis and Tomoview 2.7 for computer based acquisition

 Full calibration of all A-scans for sensitivity,


TOF, TCG\DAC to meet ASME standards
 Typical ASME calibration standard using
similar material and specified SDH

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Show Tomoview Example of 100mm
Vessel Inspection for PA Sector Scan

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Long Seam Weld Inspection

Run Long Seam Movie

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Semi Automated Inspections – ASME SEC VIII Vessel Construction
Code Case 2235 PA inspection for the replacement of radiography

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Small Diameter Piping Inspection – ASME B31.1 B31.2
Code Case 179 and 181

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Show Chain Scanner PDF

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Semi Automated Inspections – Refinery FCC Unit Replacement
Vessel Head to Shell Weld – ASME Sec VIII (CC 2235)
 The Omniscan, probes, cabling and accessories required for encoded TOFD and Phased
Array inspections can fit into one 18 x12 x 8 inch Pelican case that weighs less than 25 lbs.
 One of the last critical path events in the FCC unit replacement is the welding and inspection
of the Vessel Head to Shell Weld. At the time this is scheduled to take place there will be
many contractor activities still on-going in the unit and clearing the area for Radiography would
be cost prohibitive.

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Semi Automated Inspections – Refinery FCC Unit Replacement
Vessel Head to Shell Weld (cont.)
 The Omniscan, probes, cabling and accessories required for encoded TOFD and Phased Array
inspections can fit into one 18 x12 x 8 inch Pelican case that weighs less than 25 lbs.
 A 2 man crew using Omniscan PA and TOFD technologies allowed the weld to be inspected,
analyzed and manually proved up in one shift without interfering with other activities in the area
of the inspection site.
 The data is screened and marked on the vessel in real time during acquisition. The data file is
screened again on the Omniscan display while at the inspection site, and is also available for
offline analysis after the inspection using a computer and Tomoview analysis software

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Aircraft Component Inspection - Wing to
Fuselage Inspection

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Semi Automated Inspections – Small diameter thin wall socket
weld inspection
 Small probe footprint does not require wedge contour
 Gates placed over area of interest to create C-scan for area of interest
 Utilized ID/OD calibration notches for TOF gate positioning and sensitivity
 C-scan, S-scan, A-scan display for defect characterization and documentation
 Easy defect characterization due to elimination of internal geometric signals that can confuse
the inspector

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Semi Automated Inspections – Condenser Inspection for Weld
Quality and Dimensional Measurements
 Manual operation – no motor or power required
 Fully encoded record of each weld
 Complete full volumetric weld coverage
 Easy set up, acquisition and analysis
 >1 weld per minute inspection time

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Semi Automated Inspections – ASME Code Case 2235 PA
inspection for the replacement of radiography
 Small portable magnetic scanner does not require power or complex motion controllers
 Combines TOFD and Phased Array for detailed defect detection and sizing
 Less than 3 hours of up front engineering to include creation of scan plan, inspection strategy,
calibration, and equipment mobilization
 Using existing ID/OD notch and SDH type calibration standards typical of ASME Sec VIII
 No power required. 100% battery operated inspection using Omniscan 32:128 with PA and
TOFD accessories
 Can be used on material thickness from 12mm to 100MM+

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Heavy Wall In-Service Vessel – Piping Inspection

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Full Mechanized Phased Array Inspection

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The following 2 slides represent a typical large diameter ASME vessel inspection of a
130mm SAW weld requiring phased array, TOFD, and OD Creeping Wave Channels
It can be acquired in 2 acquisitions.
3 TOFD Zones 4 Volumetric PA Channels (Upper and
Lower Zones)

OD Creeping Wave Channels for Near


Surface Coverage

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The following represents a typical Vessel\Piping\Structural Weld
Inspection of a 50mm SAW weld requiring Phased Array and TOFD
that can be acquired in 1 acquisition.

ASME CC2235, ASME Sec VIII, API 1104, API RP2X, AWS D1.1,
MIL SPEC 271, DNV……..and more

2 TOFD Zones 6 PA Channels (Upper, Mid, and Lower Zones)

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Full Mechanized Inspections – CC2235, ASME B31.1\3, AWS, API
1104, API RP2X, DNV, etc
 Full automation without the need for Tomoview Full ACQ, complex MCDU and laptops on the job site
 Dramatically reduces training time and skill level to perform inspections
 Dramatically reduces the price of full mechanized AUT
 Allows full power of Omniscan and Focus LT where ACQ was too slow for semi-automated
 Designed to meet the needs of the upcoming code cases and customer requirements for full AUT

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Run Weldrover Movie

Show Scan Plan of 50mm Vessel

Show Tomoview Data Sample of 50mm Vessel


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3 Button Operation with small
portable remote controller
1. Forward\Stop\Jog
2. Reverse\Stop\Jog
3. Speed Control

That is it. Set the probe


position in accordance
with the scan plan,
calibrate, and Go.
1 hour training. I am not
exaggerating how easy
this is to configure and
deploy for anyone that has
completed their basic
Omniscan\PA Training

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Small compact power supply
that can maintain constant
speed from 5-50mm/sec.
No configuration required.

Finished kit will include


complete integration
within the Pelican Case.
minimum assembly
required on the job site.
The Omniscan and
accessories remain in the
case during inspection.
Simply pull the scanner
out of the case and go.

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Full Mechanized Inspections – Dissimilar Metal Weld Inspection

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Phased Array Inspection Dissimilar Metal Welds in Riser Piping

Inspection Details: 50mm wall thickness, carbon steel base material, inconel weld and
5mm thick inconel clad layer on the ID surface. Full volumetric inspection of weld and
HAZ requires multiple one line scans from both sides of the weld. 35-75 degree
refracted longitudinal sector scans are used on all one line scans.

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Submarine and Ship Hull Inspection

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2D Array for Passive and Active Plane
Focusing

Show 2D Array in Advanced Calculator


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Fixed SAW Weld Station Inspection

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Show Pipe Wizard Movie

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Full Mechanized Inspections – Zone Discrimination Inspection for Pipeline
Construction

Conventional UT with 30+ probes Phased Array 2 Probes + TOFD

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Full Mechanized Inspections – Zone Discrimination Inspection for Pipeline
Construction

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Your Vision,
Our Future
ftp.olympusndt.com/public/ChrisMagruder/

Confidential – For Internal Use Only