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http://math.la.asu.edu/~tdalesan/mat170/TRIGONOMETRY.ppt

Angles, Arc length, Conversions

Angle measured in standard position.

Initial side is the positive x – axis which is fixed.

Terminal side is the ray in quadrant II, which is free

to rotate about the origin. Counterclockwise rotation

is positive, clockwise rotation is negative.

Coterminal Angles: Angles that have the same terminal side.

60°, 420°, and –300° are all coterminal.

Degrees to radians: Multiply angle by . 60 radians

180 180 3

180 180

. 4 45

Radians to degrees: Multiply angle by

Note: 1 revolution = 360° = 2π radians.

Note: The central angle must be in radian measure.

Right Triangle Trig Definitions

B

c

a

A

C b

• cos(A) = cosine of A = adjacent / hypotenuse = b/c

• tan(A) = tangent of A = opposite / adjacent = a/b

• csc(A) = cosecant of A = hypotenuse / opposite = c/a

• sec(A) = secant of A = hypotenuse / adjacent = c/b

• cot(A) = cotangent of A = adjacent / opposite = b/a

Special Right Triangles

30°

45°

2

2

3 1

60° 45°

1 1

1 2

cos(30 )

3

cos(60 ) cos( 45 )

2 2 2

1 3 2

sin( 30 ) sin( 60 ) sin( 45 )

2 2 2

tan( 30 )

3

tan( 60 ) 3 tan( 45 ) 1

3

Basic Trigonometric Identities

sin( A) cos( A)

Quotient identities: tan( A) cot( A)

cos( A) sin( A)

cos( A) cos( A) sin( A) sin( A) tan( A) tan( A)

Even/Odd identities:

sec( A) sec( A) csc( A) csc( A) cot( A) cot( A)

Even functions Odd functions Odd functions

Reciprocal Identities:

1 1 1

csc( A) sec( A) cot( A)

sin( A) cos( A) tan( A)

1 1 1

sin( A) cos( A) tan( A)

csc( A) sec( A) cot( A)

Pythagorean Identities:

sin 2 ( A) cos 2 ( A) 1

tan 2 ( A) 1 sec 2 ( A) 1 cot 2 ( A) csc 2 ( A)

All Students Take Calculus.

Quad I

Quad II

cos(A)<0 cos(A)>0

sin(A)>0 sin(A)>0

tan(A)<0 tan(A)>0

sec(A)<0 sec(A)>0

csc(A)>0 csc(A)>0

cot(A)<0 cot(A)>0

cos(A)<0 cos(A)>0

sin(A)<0 sin(A)<0

tan(A)>0 tan(A)<0

sec(A)<0 sec(A)>0

csc(A)<0 csc(A)<0

cot(A)>0 cot(A)<0

Quad III Quad IV

Reference Angles

Quad I

Quad II

θ’ = 180° – θ θ’ = θ

θ’ = π – θ

θ’ = θ – 180° θ’ = 360° – θ

θ’ = θ – π θ’ = 2π – θ

Unit circle

• Radius of the circle is 1.

• x = cos(θ) 1 cos( ) 1

• y = sin(θ) 1 sin( ) 1

• Pythagorean Theorem: x 2

y 2

1

( ) sin 2

( ) 1

• Zeros of sin(θ) are n where n is an integer.

• Zeros of cos(θ) are 2 n where n is an

integer.

Graphs of sine & cosine

f ( x) A sin( Bx C ) D

g ( x) A cos( Bx C ) D

• Fundamental period of sine and cosine is 2π.

• Domain of sine and cosine is .

• Range of sine and cosine is [–|A|+D, |A|+D].

• The amplitude of a sine and cosine graph is |A|.

• The vertical shift or average value of sine and

cosine graph is D.

• The period of sine and cosine graph is 2B .

• The phase shift or horizontal shift is CB .

Sine graphs

y = sin(x)

y = sin(x) + 3

y = 3sin(x)

y = sin(3x)

y = sin(x – 3)

y = 3sin(3x-9)+3

y = sin(x)

y = sin(x/3)

Graphs of cosine

y = cos(x)

y = cos(x) + 3

y = 3cos(x)

y = cos(3x)

y = cos(x – 3) y = 3cos(3x – 9) + 3

y = cos(x)

y = cos(x/3)

Tangent and cotangent graphs

f ( x) A tan( Bx C ) D

g ( x) A cot( Bx C ) D

• Fundamental period of tangent and cotangent is

π.

• Domain of tangent is x | x 2 n where n is an

integer.

• Domain of cotangent x | x n where n is an

integer.

• Range of tangent and cotangent is .

• The period of tangent or cotangent graph is .

B

Graphs of tangent and cotangent

y = tan(x) y = cot(x)

Vertical asymptotes at x n . Verrical asymptotes at x n .

2

Graphs of secant and cosecant

y = csc(x)

y = sec(x)

Vertical asymptotes at x n . Vertical asymptotes at x n .

Range: (–∞, –1] U [1, ∞) 2 Range: (–∞, –1] U [1, ∞)

y = cos(x) y = sin(x)

Inverse Trigonometric Functions

and Trig Equations

y sin 1 ( x) arcsin( x)

Domain: [–1, 1]

Range: ,

2 2

0 < y < 1, solutions in QI and QII.

–1 < y < 0, solutions in QIII and QIV.

1

y cos ( x) arccos( x) y tan 1 ( x) arctan( x)

Domain:

Domain: [–1, 1]

Range: ,

Range: [0, π] 2 2

0 < y < 1, solutions in QI and QIV. 0 < y < 1, solutions in QI and QIII.

–1< y < 0, solutions in QII and QIII. –1 < y < 0, solutions in QII and QIV.

Trigonometric Identities

Summation & Difference Formulas

cos( A B) cos( A) cos( B) sin( A) sin( B)

tan( A) tan( B)

tan( A B)

1 tan( A) tan( B)

Trigonometric Identities

Double Angle Formulas

sin( 2 A) 2 sin( A) cos( A)

cos( 2 A) cos 2 ( A) sin 2 ( A) 1 2 sin 2 ( A) 2 cos 2 ( A) 1

2 tan( A)

tan( 2 A)

1 tan ( A)

2

Trigonometric Identities

Half Angle Formulas

A 1 cos( A) A

sin The quadrant of 2

A 1 cos( A)

cos

2 2

A 1 cos( A)

tan

2 1 cos( A)

Law of Sines & Law of Cosines

Law of sines Law of cosines

sin( A) sin( B) sin( C )

c 2 a 2 b 2 2ab cos(C )

a b c

a b c b 2 a 2 c 2 2ac cos( B)

sin( A) sin( B) sin( C ) a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos( A)

Use when you have a

Use when you have SAS, SSS.

complete ratio: SSA.

Vectors

• A vector is an object that has a magnitude and a direction.

• Given two points P1: ( x1 , y1 ) and P2: ( x2 , y2 ) on the plane, a

vector v that connects the points from P1 to P2 is

v = ( x2 x1 )i + ( y2 y1 )j.

• Unit vectors are vectors of length 1.

• i is the unit vector in the x direction.

• j is the unit vector in the y direction.

• A unit vector in the direction of v is v/||v||

• A vector v can be represented in component form

by v = vxi + vyj.

• The magnitude of v is ||v|| = v x v y

2 2

standard position and the vector’s magnitude, component

form can be written as v = ||v||cos(θ)i + ||v||sin(θ)j

Vector Operations

Scalar multiplication: A vector can be multiplied by any scalar (or number).

Example: Let v = 5i + 4j, k = 7. Then kv = 7(5i + 4j) = 35i + 28j.

Dot Product: Multiplication of two vectors.

Let v = vxi + vyj, w = wxi + wyj. Example: Let v = 5i + 4j, w = –2i + 3j.

v · w = vxwx + vywy v · w = (5)(–2) + (4)(3) = –10 + 12 = 2.

Alternate Dot Product formula v · w = ||v||||w||cos(θ). The angle θ is the

angle between the two vectors.

v θ

w

Two vectors v and w are orthogonal (perpendicular) iff v · w = 0.

Addition/subtraction of vectors: Add/subtract same components.

Example Let v = 5i + 4j, w = –2i + 3j.

v + w = (5i + 4j) + (–2i + 3j) = (5 – 2)i + (4 + 3)j = 3i + 7j.

3v – 2w = 3(5i + 4j) – 2(–2i + 3j) = (15i + 12j) + (4i – 6j) = 19i + 6j.

||3v – 2w|| = 192 62 397 19.9

Acknowledgements

• Unit Circle: http://www.davidhardison.com/math/trig/unit_circle.gif

• Text: Blitzer, Precalculus Essentials, Pearson Publishing, 2006.

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