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API 579

An Introduction to API RP 579:


Section 9
Assessment of Crack Like
Flaws
Introduction
API 579

• Classical engineering design


– applied stress : material resistance
– component is defect-free
• Possible presence of defects
– casting, welding, forming, develop during operation
• Fitness for Service (FFS) procedure
– Determining the residual life of damaged plant
– Ensuring safe operation beyond design life
– Down-rating damaged plant below design
– Demonstrating tolerance to defects within a safety case
– Extending inspection intervals
– Reducing duration of outage and shutdown

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Codes
API 579

• API: American Petroleum Industry


• API Codes and Standards for:
– design, fabrication, inspection and testing of new pressure
vessels, piping systems and storage tanks
• do not address the fact that equipment degrades while in-
service
• deficiencies due to degradation or from original fabrication
may be found during subsequent inspections.
• Can be applied to other industries
• API Codes
– API 510: Pressure vessel inspection code
– API 570: Piping inspection code
– API 653: Tank inspection code
– API 580: Risk based inspection
• API 579
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API 579
API 579

• to ensure safety:plant personnel,


public
• to provide sound FFS assessment
procedures
• to ensure consistent remaining life
predictions
• to enhance long-term economic
viability

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API 579
API 579

• API's Recommended Practice 579 for FFS


• API 579 can be used to make run-repair-
replace decisions
• The 1,000-page document is organized
into modules
• Each section is based on a type of flaw or
damage, such as crack-like flaws
• The document is primarily aimed at the
petrochemical industry
• types of damage listed seen in
petrochemical applications
– they are present in other industries

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API 579 Overview of Damage
Assessment Procedures
Section
1 Introduction and Scope
2 Outline of Overall Methodology
3 Brittle Fracture
4 General Metal Loss
5 Local Metal Loss
6 Pitting Corrosion
7 Blisters and Laminations
8 Weld Misalignments and Shell Distortions
9 Crack Like Flaws
10 High Temp. Operation and Creep
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API 579 Methodology for All Damage
Types
1 Flaw and damage mechanism identification
2 Applicability and limitations of the FFS
assessment procedures
3 Data requirements
4 Assessment techniques and acceptance criteria
5 Remaining life evaluation
6 Remediation
7 In-service monitoring
8 Documentation
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Assessment Levels
API 579

• Three levels of assessment for each flaw and


damage type
– Level 1 to 3
• Assessment level
– Conservatism
– Amount of information required
– Skill of the assessor
– Complexity of analysis
• Level 1
– NDE inspector
• Level 2
– Plant Engineer
• Level 3
– FFS Expert
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API 579 API 579 Section 9 - ASSESSMENT
OF CRACK-LIKE FLAWS
• FFS for crack like flaws
• Based on Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD)
method
• Crack like flaws observed from inspection:
– planar flaws
– Length, depth, sharp root radius
– Conservative to treat volumetric flaws as cracks
• Micro-cracks at root
• Relative flaw tolerance at design stage
– Risk to fracture
– a/t = 25%, length = 6a
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API 579 Applicability and Limitations of
the Procedure
• Level 1 and 2
– Original Design Criteria
– Operating temperature less than Creep
range
– Dynamic Loading effects not significant
– No in-service crack growth

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API 579 Applicability and Limitations of
the Procedure : Level 1
• Geometries
– Flat plate, cylinder or sphere
– R/t > 5
– t < 38 mm
– Away from major structural discontinuity
• Loads
– Only membrane stress field, within design limits
• Material
– C-Steel with specified max. tensile prop. And
min. fracture properties

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Data Requirement
API 579

• Original Equipment Design Data


• Maintenance and equipment
history
• Loads and stresses
• Material properties
• Flaw Characterization
• Recommendation for inspection
techniques
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Flaw Characterization
API 579

• Simple geometry, amenable for fracture


mechanics analysis
• Objective is to get a crack of conservative
size in plane  to maximum principal
stress direction
• Cracks from inspection:
– irregular in shape
– arbitrarily oriented
– multiple cracks
– branched cracks

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Flaw Characterization (Shape)
API 579

Through Wall Flaw

Surface Flaw

Embedded Flaw
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API 579 Flaw Characterization (length) when
flaw is not normal to principal stress
direction
• Conservative Option
– Co (measured length), C (length used in
calculations, normal to max. stresses)
– Take C = Co
• Equivalent flaw length
– Inclined cracks -> align itself perpendicular
to the applied stress
– Mixed mode to Mode I crack
– Equivalent Mode I from energy
considerations

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API 579
Flaw Characterization (Length)

c  c0 f  1 ,  2 ,  
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API 579
Flaw Characterization (depth)

• Depth difficult to measure


• A. Flaw depth by default values
– Through wall flaw, a = t,
– Surface flaw, a  min t , c length=2c
• B. Flaw depth from actual
measurements
– Normal flaw, a=ao

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Flaw Characterization (Depth)
API 579

a  aoW  
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API 579
Flaw Characterization (Branch Crack)

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API 579
Flaw Characterization (Multiple Cracks)

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API 579 Level 1 Analysis
• STEP 1 – Determine the load cases and temperatures:
operating and design conditions.
• STEP 2 – Determine the length and depth of the crack:
characterize
• STEP 3 – Determine the case from the list below
o Flat Plate, Crack-Like Flaw Parallel To Joint
o Cylinder, Longitudinal Joint, Crack-Like Flaw Parallel To Joint
o Cylinder, Longitudinal Joint, Crack-Like Perpendicular To Joint
o Cylinder, Circumferential Joint, Crack-Like Flaw Parallel To
Joint
o Cylinder, Circumferential Joint, Crack-Like Flaw Perpendicular
To Joint
o Sphere, Circumferential Joint, Crack-Like Flaw Parallel To Joint
o Sphere, Circumferential Joint, Crack-Like Flaw Perpendicular
To Joint
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API 579 Level 1 analysis

Tref = use 38oC (material specific


can also be obtained from
Section 3)
At Tref +33o Cv = 68J, l.e. >.89mm

¼ t, flaw
t flaw

A – flaw in base metal.


B –flaw in weld metal that has been subject to PWHT.
C –flaw in weld metal that has not been subject to PWHT
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Failure Assessment Diagram
API 579

K r  f  Lr 
KI
K  '
r
K mat
 ref
L  '

 ys
r

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Advantages of FAD
API 579

• Double criteria approach:


– Fracture
• LEFM
• EPFM
– Collapse
• Elasto-Plastic Fracture Mechanics:
– J-Integral calculation not required

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Level 2 Analysis
API 579

• If the component does not meet the


Level 1 Assessment requirements then a
Level 2 or Level 3 Assessment can be
done.
• Method A: Using partial safety factors
– Factor for applied loading
– Factor for material toughness
– Factor for flaw dimensions
– Based on probabilistic methods

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Level 2 Analysis
API 579

1– Evaluate operating conditions and determine the


pressure, temperature and loading combinations to be
evaluated.
2–Stress distributions at the location of the flaw. Classify
Primary stress
Secondary stress
Residual stress
Appendix E of API 579 contains a compendium of residual
stress distributions for various weld geometries
3 – Determine the material properties
yield strength
tensile strength
fracture toughness
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Level 2 Analysis
API 579

• Appendix F of API 579 contains information


on material properties, including toughness
• Appendix does not contain a database of
toughness values
• It provides correlations and estimation
methods
• For ferritic steels, there are lower-bound
correlations of toughness to Charpy transition
temperature
– From Sections III and XI of the ASME boiler and
pressure vessel code

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Level 2 Analysis
API 579

API 579 endorses the use of the fracture


toughness Master Curve, as implemented in
ASTM Standard E 1921-97
4 – Determine the crack dimensions: characterize
5 – Modify the primary stress, material fracture
toughness, and flaw size using the Partial Safety
Factors ( PSF )
Pm  Pm .PSFS K mat a  a.PSFa
K mat 
Pb  Pb .PSFS PSFk

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API 579 Need for Partial safety Factors
(PSF)
Consider a Design
R = L1 + L2 + L3
Let the factor of safety be 1.5
Thus:
R/(L1+L2+L3) = 1.5

1.5 to account for scatter in R, L


Probability of failure P(R < [L1+L2+L3])
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API 579 Estimating the Probability of
failure
Let all the variables R, L1, L2, L3 follow a
normal distribution.

Coeff. Of Var (/ m)

R 0.1
L1 0.1
L2 0.2
L3 0.3

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Reliability Index
API 579

The reliability index is given by

m R  m1  m 2  m 3 

   
2
R
2
1
2
2
2
3

Now we will try to estimate probability


of failure for different load combinations
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API 579 mR = 300 Global Factor of safety = 1.5 i.e. mR/Sm = 1.5

m1 m2 m3 Sm Pf

200 0 0 200 2.8x10-3

0 200 0 200 2.3x10-3

0 0 200 200 6.8x10-2

Need for safety factors (PSF) on each component of


load for consistent Reliability

R/f = f1.L1 + f2.L2 + f3.L3


PSF ensures guaranteed lower bound reliability
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Partial safety Factors
API 579

Brittle Ductile

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Level 2 Analysis
API 579

6 – Compute the reference stress for primary


stresses
–reference stress solutions: Appendix D
7 – Compute the Load Ratio  p

Lr 
p ref

y
8 – Compute the stress intensity attributed to the
primary loads
9 – Compute the reference stress for secondary and
residual stresses (used for F)
10 – Compute the stress intensity attributed to the
secondary and residual stresses
11 – Compute the plasticity interaction factor, F in
presence of secondary loads

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Level 2 Analysis
API 579

K IP  FK ISR
12 – Determine toughness ratio Kr 
K mat
13 – Evaluate results on FAD


K r  1  0.14  LPr 
2
 
0.3  0.7 exp  0.65  LPr   for LPr  LPr (max)

6


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Level 2 Analysis
API 579

If Partial safety Factors are not used

0.7
Kr

0
0 0.2 0.4 Lr 0.6 0.8 1

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Residual Stress Profiles
API 579

• Listed in Appendix E of API 579 Section 9


• Residual stress distributions are provided for
the following weld joint configurations
– Full Penetration Welds in Piping and Pressure Vessel
Cylindrical Shells
– Full Penetration Welds in Spheres and Pressure
Vessel Heads
– Full Penetration Welds in Storage Tanks
– Full Penetration and Fillet Welds at Corner Joints
– Fillet Welds at Tee Joints
– Repair Welds

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Residual stress profiles
API 579

• Based on upper bound values of the extensive


numerical analyses and a literature survey of
published results
• Residual stress distributions are provided for
both the as-welded and PWHT conditions
• Distinction is not made concerning the material
of construction
– Weld joint geometry
– Single V-Type
– Double V-Type
– Fillet welds
– Repair welds

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Data required
API 579

• The material specification


• The material specified minimum yield strength
• The wall thickness of the component
• The heat input used to make the weld
• The type of weld (i.e. girth or circumferential
joint, longitudinal seam, repair weld, or
attachment weld)
• The weld joint configuration (i.e. single V-
groove, double V-groove, corner joint, fillet
weld, or repair weld)
• Procedures aimed at reducing the residual
stress level
– hydrotest to 150% of the maximum allowable
working pressure (MAWP)per the ASME Code,
Section VIII,
– post weld heat treatment per the original
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Level 3 Analysis
API 579

Method A Assessment –Level 2 the FAD with user


specified Partial Safety Factors based on a risk
assessment
Method B Assessment – FAD is constructed based on
the actual material properties
1 2
 E
K r  LPr    P
ref

 Lr   ys
P 3 
 for 0.0  LPr  LPr (max)
 Lr  ys 2 E ref 
 
K r  LPr   1 for LPr  0

 t  1   es   es
 t  ln 1   es 
Where subscripts t = true, es = engineering
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Level 3 Analysis
API 579

Method C Assessment –FAD is constructed


based on the actual loading conditions,
component geometry and material properties
J elastic
Kr 
J total

Method D Assessment – This method is a


ductile tearing analysis where the fracture
tearing resistance is defined as a function of
the amount of stable ductile tearing

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Level 3 Analysis
API 579

• Method E Assessment – The recognized assessment


procedures listed below are subject to supplemental
requirements that may include the use of Partial
Safety Factors or a probabilistic analysis.

• BS PD6493 or BS 7910
• Nuclear Electric R-6
• SAQ/FoU Report 96/08
• WES 2805 – 1997
• DPFAD Methodology
• EPFM using the J-integral
• The J-integral-Tearing Modulus method
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API 579 Remaining Life Assessment
(RLA)
• Sub-critical Crack Growth
– Crack growth by fatigue
– Crack growth by stress corrosion cracking
– Crack growth by hydrogen assisted cracking
– Crack growth by corrosion fatigue
• Growth of a pre-existing crack is controlled by a
crack tip stress intensity factor
• Laws for crack growth rates for these mechanisms
have been provided in Appendix F

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Difficulties in RLA
API 579

• Crack growth rates can be highly


sensitive to changes in the process
environment
– Models are fitted in carefully controlled
conditions in a laboratory experiment
• Cracking often occurs as the result of an
upset in operating conditions
– Average crack growth rate would be
meaningless in such instances
• New cracks can initiate at other locations
in the structure

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Procedure for RLA
API 579

1 – Perform a Level 3 assessment for the initial


crack size
If the component is acceptable apply remedial
measures to prevent further crack growth
2 – If effective remedial measures are not
possible and slow sub-critical crack growth is
expected
If a crack growth law exists for the material and service
environment: a crack growth analysis can be
performed else, a leak-before break analysis should be
performed

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Procedure for RLA
API 579

3 – Compute the stress at the flaw based


on the future operating conditions
4 – Determine an increment in crack
growth
5 – Perform a Level 3 assessment for the
current crack size
If the assessment point is outside of the FAD or
the crack is re-categorized as a through-wall
crack, then go to STEP 6; otherwise, go to STEP
4 and continue to grow the crack

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Procedure for RLA
API 579

6 – Determine the time or number of stress cycles for


the current crack size (ao, co) to reach the limiting flaw
size
Acceptable if time to reach the limiting flaw size,with FOS,
is more than the required operating period
If the depth of the limiting flaw size is re-categorized as a
through-wall thickness crack, the conditions for an
acceptable leak before break (LBB) criteria should be
satisfied
7 – At the next inspection, establish the actual crack
growth rate, and re-evaluate the new flaw conditions.
Alternatively, repair or replace the component or apply
effective mitigation measures
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LBB Procedure
API 579

It may be possible to show that a flaw can


grow through the wall of a component
without causing a catastrophic failure

In such cases, a leak can be detected


(taking into consideration the contained
fluid and type of insulation) and remedial
action could be initiated to avoid a
component failure

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Leak Before Break
API 579

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LBB Procedure Limitations
API 579

The leak should be readily detectable


Insulation
Tight crack
Contained fluid
The LBB methodology may not be
suitable for flaws near stress
concentrations or regions of high
residual stress

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LBB Limitations
API 579

Flaw at a stress concentration

Flaw subjected to high


residual stresses

Flaw growth in
predominantly length
direction
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LBB Limitations
API 579

Crack growth rate high


Adequate time must be available to discover the
leak and take the necessary action
Possible adverse consequences of
developing a leak
hazardous materials
fluids operating below their boiling point
fluids operating above their auto-ignition
temperature

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LBB Procedure
API 579

1 –Demonstrate that the largest initial flaw size left in


the structure will not lead to fracture during the life of
the component.
2 –Determine the largest (critical) crack length of a full
through-wall crack below which catastrophic rupture
will not occur for all applicable load cases.
3 – Compute the corresponding leak areas associated
with the critical crack lengths
4 – Determine the leakage rate associated with the crack
area computed above, and demonstrate that the
associated leaks are detectable with the selected leak
detection system

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Remediation
API 579

• Method 1 – Removal or repair of the crack. The crack


may be removed by blend grinding
• Method 2 – Use of a crack arresting detail or device
• Method 3 – Performing physical changes to the
process stream
• Method 4 – Application of solid barrier linings or
coatings to keep the environment isolated from the
base metal
• Method 5 – Injection of water and/or chemicals on a
continuous basis to modify the environment or the
surface of the metal
• Method 6 – Application of weld overlay
• Method 7 – Use of leak monitoring and leak-sealing
devices
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In-service monitoring
API 579

In all cases where sub-critical in-service


crack growth is permitted
– in-service monitoring or
– monitoring at a shutdown inspection
of the crack growth by NDE is required.
The applicable NDE method will depend
on the specific case.

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Example Calculation
API 579

• A plate of SA 516 Grade 70 steel


• Edge crack, depth ‘a’ = 0.5 inch
• Width of plate ‘W’ = 5 inch
• Thickness ‘B’ = 1.25 inch
• Service temp.’T’ = 100o F
• Axial Load ‘F’ = 240 kips
• Yield stress ‘Sy’ = 38 ksi
• Toughness not known
• Safe ? Using a Level 2 analysis
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Solution
API 579

• Kc, from Table 3.3 of API 579, Tref


= 40o F

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Solution
API 579

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FAD
API 579

Example of Level 2 FAD


0.8
(1.12, 0.559)
0.6 Load = 171 kips
Kr

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Lr

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API 579

Thank You

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