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ROMANESQUE

ARCHITCETURE
Ar. Sukriti Dogra
Descended from Roman Architecture

Typical Romanesque Architectural forms


Italy,
France,
Germany,
Central Europe,
Spain and
Britain.
Its spread (mainly Western Europe)
Geography
 Meaning: The word "Romanesque" means
"descended from Roman“.
 Developedin: Due to collapse in Roman Empire,
Romanesque Architecture developed in Western
Europe.
 Architecture: This is direct modification of Roman
Architecture.
 Spread: This Style slowly developed in Italy,
France, Germany, Central Europe, Spain and
Britain.
Ruins of Roman buildings.

Stone (France) Marble (Italy)


Brick (Italy)

Columns
Geology
 Building Materials: The building materials used in
Romanesque buildings were
 Stone (France)
 Brick (Italy)

 Marble (Italy)

 Readymade columns and remains from ruins of Roman


buildings.
Climatic conditions
In South, climate was hot
North mein climate was cold
Climatic conditions
 Climate was varying in Italy, France and England.
 In South, climate was hot:
 Smaller windows to cut off sun light
 Also due to less rainfall, roofs were flat

 North climate was cold:


 Largewindow openings for sufficient light.
 Heavy rainfall and snow, pitched roofs were used.
Religious Conditions

Cathedrals and Churches


Religious Conditions

 Rapid spread: After birth of Christianity, it spread


rapidly in Europe.
 Many Churches began to appear.
 Papacy (authority of the Pope) began to get much power.

 Bishops were bestowed with authority than Govt. officials.

 Hence power of Church began to increase.

 In all, cathedrals and churches were made in numbers


during this period.
 Artistsand craftsmen were appointed to store the art
and culture of their empire.
Architectural features
 Modification: It is basically direct modification of Roman
Architecture
 which grew in France, Germany, central Europe, Spain and
Britain.
 In early period: materials from ruins of Roman Buildings
were taken.
 In later Romanesque Style: remarkable use of new
construction methods was there.
Vaults

Arcades

Plans Towers
 Vaults: Roman Vaults were used till 12th century, they
were gradually replaced by rib and panel vaulting.
 Framework of ribs was constructed over which thin panels were
placed.
 Other than that groin vault was used in major.

 Plans: of basilica were slightly modified in this period.


 The trancepts were elongated, hence making a well defined cross
plan.
 The choir was enclosed by screen walls

 Towers: Square, octagonal and circular tower became


features of this style.
 Arcades: were common where columns were to support
semi-circular openings or arches.
 They occur in the interior of large churches, separating the nave
from the aisles, and in large secular interiors spaces
Masonary

Piers

Ornamentation
 Masonary: Ashlar and rubble core masonary were
used in construction.
 Ornamentation: was in floral and animal form.
 Frescos were common than mosaics, stained glass was
little used here
 Walls: The walls of Romanesque buildings are often of
massive thickness with few openings.
 They are often double shells, filled with rubble.
 Piers: In Romanesque architecture, piers were often
employed to support arches.
 They were built of masonry and square or rectangular in
section
Other buildings 
 Buildings of every type were constructed in the Romanesque
style, with evidence remaining of
 simple domestic buildings,
 elegant town houses,

 grand palaces,

 commercial premises,

 civic buildings,

 Castles,

 bridges,

 cathedrals

 By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings


are churches.