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Symmetrical

refers to data in which both sides

are (more or less) the same when

the graph is folded vertically down

the middle

bell-shaped is a special type

has a center mound with two

sloping tails

Uniform

refers to data in which every

class has equal or

approximately equal

frequency

Skewed (left or right)

refers to data in which one

side (tail) is longer than the

other side

the direction of skewness is

on the side of the longer tail

Skewness

The following picture is an example of what kind of

distribution?

a. right skewed

b. left- skewed

c. symmetric

Bimodal (multi-modal)

refers to data in which two

(or more) classes have the

largest frequency & are

separated by at least one

other class

Approximately Normal

A phrase used to illustrate a

bell shaped curve (uni-

modal with minimal

skewness)

Outlier

When examining data- Look for outliers!!!

Outlier- observations that lie outside the overall

pattern of a distribution.

FORMULA:

An observation is considered an outlier it falls more

than 1.5 X IQR below Q1 or above Q3.

Mean

Mean= (1/n)Σxi

The mean is a measure of center in a distribution

The mean is nonresistant to very large or very small

observations

Median

Steps to finding the Median of a distribution:

1. Re-arrange the observations from smallest to largest

2. If number of observations is odd, the median is the

center observation

3. If number of observations is even, the median is the

average of the two observations in the center

The median is resistant to very large or very small

observations

Standard Deviation (s)

s measures the spread about the mean and should only

be used when the mean is chosen as the measure of

center

s=0 only when there is no spread. This happens only

when all observations are the same value. *as

observations become more spread out about their

mean, s gets larger.

s is strongly influenced by outliers

Variance (s²)

Variance- the average of the squares of the deviations

of the observations from their mean.

s² = 1 Σ (xi – x)²

n–1

Purpose of a graph

to help understand the data

Look for an overall pattern and for striking deviations from

the pattern

An outlier in any graph of data is an individual observation that

falls outside the overall pattern of the graph

Overall Pattern of a Distribution

To describe the overall pattern of a distribution:

Give the center and spread

See if the distribution has a simple shape that you can describe

in a few words.

Midpoint is the value with half the observations taking smaller

values and half taking larger values.

Spread is measured from the smallest to largest (ignoring

outliers).

Key Terms

When describing a distribution, you should always

include at minimum:

Center

Shape

Spread

Examples

Which of the following numbers are outliers?

4 7 7 7 8 9 9 15

Which of the following situations does standard

deviation equal zero?

b. When all the observations are less than zero.

c. When all the numbers are greater than zero.

d. When there is no spread (all numbers are the same

value)

Examples Continued:

• A numerical summary should report which of the

following?

a. center, spread, variablility

b. mean, median, mode

c. Standard deviation

d. IQR

What is the relationship between standard deviation and

variance?

a. Standard deviation is the square root of variance.

b. Standard deviation is 2 times the variance

c. They are the same value

d. They are both equal to zero.

Examples Continued:

What strikes you as the most distinctive difference

among the distributions of exam scores in classes A, B,

&C?

The distribution of a set of data describes how the data is

spread out.

Two distributions can be compared using one of the three

averages and the range.

For example, the number of cars sold by two salesmen each

day for a week is shown below.

Matt 5 7 6 5 7 8 6

Jamie 3 6 4 8 12 9 8

Matt 5 7 6 5 7 8 6

Jamie 3 6 4 8 12 9 8

number cars sold by each one.

Matt:

5+7+6+5+7+8+6 44

Mean = = = 6.3 (to 1 d.p.)

7 7

Jamie:

3 + 6 + 4 + 8 + 12 + 9 + 8 50

Mean = = = 7.1 (to 1 d.p.)

7 7

This tells us that, on average, Jamie sold more cars each day.

Matt 5 7 6 5 7 8 6

Jamie 3 6 4 8 12 9 8

Matt: Range = 8 – 5 = 3

Jamie: Range = 12 – 3 = 9

The range for the number of cars sold each day is smaller for

Matt. This means that he is a more consistent or reliable

salesman.

We could argue that Jamie is better because he sells more

on average, or that Matt is better because he is more

consistent.

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