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CorrectSPC

© 2010 Bob Doering

PROCESS CONTROL FOR


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STATISTICAL PROCESS
CONTROL
AIAG PPAP 4th Edition
2.2.11.3 Acceptance Criteria for Initial Study
The organization shall use the following as acceptance
criteria for evaluating initial process study results
for processes that appear stable.
Results Interpretation
Index > 1.67 Meets acceptance criteria
1.33≤ Index ≤ 1.67 May be acceptable
Index ≤ 1.33 Does not meet acceptance criteria
© 2010 Bob Doering
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STATISTICAL PROCESS
CONTROL
AIAG PPAP 4th Edition
2.2.11.5 Processes with One-Sided Specifications or
Non-Normal Distributions
The organization shall determine with the authorized
customer representative alternative acceptance
criteria for processes with one sided specifications
or non-normal distributions.

© 2010 Bob Doering


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STATISTICAL PROCESS
CONTROL
AIAG PPAP 4th Edition
2.2.11.5 Processes with One-Sided Specifications or
Non-Normal Distributions

NOTE: The above mentioned acceptance criteria


(2.2.11.3) assume normality and a two-sided
specification (target in the center).

When this is not true, using this analysis may


result in unreliable information.

© 2010 Bob Doering


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STATISTICAL PROCESS
CONTROL
AIAG PPAP 4th Edition
2.2.11.5 Processes with One-Sided
Specifications or Non-Normal Distributions

NOTE (cont.): These alternate acceptance


criteria could require different type of index
or some method of transformation of the data.
The focus should be on understanding reasons
for the non-normality (e.g. is it stable over
time?) and managing variation.

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CONTROL CHART BASICS
NORMAL PROCESS: IN CONTROL
WITH CHANCE VARIATION

IN ORDER FOR A PROCESS TO BE NORMAL, IT


SHOULD BE ABLE TO BE SET AT THE MEAN,
AND WILL CONTINUE TO RANDOMLY VARY
ABOUT THE MEAN WITHOUT ANY OPERATOR
INTERVENTION!
© 2010 Bob Doering
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CONTROL CHART BASICS
EXAMPLES OF PROCESSES WITH
NORMAL VARIATION

CUTTING GRASS
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CONTROL CHART BASICS
EXAMPLES OF PROCESSES WITH
NORMAL VARIATION

AUTOMATED BAKERY
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WHAT IS CONTROL?
A process in control is in the ideal state
100% conforming and predictable

must remain stable over time


must operate in a stable and consistent
manner
must be set at the proper level (centered)
the natural process spread must not
exceed the product’s specified tolerance
(capable)
© 2010 Bob Doering
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WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF
VARIATION CAUSES?
COMMON CAUSE
Inherent in the process
Affects every part
Examples: gravity, air pressure, tool wear
SPECIAL CAUSE
“Assignable”
Does not affect every part
Examples: tool breakage, start up, change of
operators
© 2010 Bob Doering
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TRADITIONAL SPC
Expects all “special causes” have
been eliminated
Expects the remaining variation is
random, with most variation close to a
central value
Seeks to find trends from within an
otherwise random output to act upon
when they occur

© 2010 Bob Doering


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TRADITIONAL SPC

Search for
Extraterrestrial
Intelligence
(SETI)

Traditional SPC is like looking out into


space seeking signs of life
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TRADITIONAL SPC

Typically, you listen to random radio


frequency noise looking for a
“pattern” – as a pattern shows intent
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TRADITIONAL SPC
Wow! signal was a strong
narrowband radio signal
detected by
Dr. Jerry R. Ehman on
August 15, 1977, while
working on a SETI project
at The Big Ear radio
telescope of The Ohio
State University

If you find such a trend, then you can take


action to determine its origin. This is
more “monitoring” than “control”
© 2010 Bob Doering
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PROCESS DEFINITIONS
DEFINITION OF PRECISION MACHINING
A process where material is removed by a
cutting surface – such as grinding, honing,
turning, milling, etc.
The process must be controlled in a manner
that all variation (vibration, bearings, gage
error) is statistically insignificant except
tool wear.
© 2010 Bob Doering
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CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS

TOTAL VARIANCE EQUATION

 2T =  2Tool Wear +  2Measurement Error +

 2Gage Error +  2Material +  2Temperature +  2Operator

+  2Other
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PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

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PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

GRINDING EXAMPLE
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PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

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PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

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PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

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PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

© 2010 Bob Doering


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PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

“Process Control and Evaluation in


the Presence of Systematic
Assignable Cause”,
Ashok Sarkar and Surajit,Pal,
Quality Engineering, Volume 10(2),
1997-1998

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PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

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PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM

The central limit theorem (CLT)


sufficiently large number of
independent random variables
each with finite mean and variance,
will be approximately normally
distributed (Rice 1995).

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM

Precision machining has


sufficiently large number of
independent
dependent random variables
non-random variables
each with finite mean and variance,
will be not be normally distributed
The central limit theorem does not
apply!
© 2010 Bob Doering
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CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM

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CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM

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CONTROL CHART FEATURES
Interesting points:
The MEAN has no real value in
controlling a process with the uniform
distribution
“Running to the mean” is not how to
control a process with the uniform
distribution – it causes overcontrol!

© 2010 Bob Doering


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TYPES OF
VARIABLE CONTROL CHARTS
There are many types, but the most
common on the precision machining
shop floor is:
X Bar-R (or X Mean - R)
X-Moving Range
and then there is a new option:
X Hi/Low – R
But, which is best?
© 2010 Bob Doering
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X-BAR R CHARTS

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X-BAR R CHARTS

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X-BAR R CHARTS
Control Chart Data Collection
Key Question For Machining Round Parts:
How many diameters are there in a circle?

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X-BAR R CHARTS
Control Chart Data Collection
How many diameters are there in a circle?
There are an infinite number of diameters in a
circle!

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CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS

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X-BAR R CHARTS

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X-BAR R CHARTS
Control Chart Data Collection
There are also an infinite number of lengths
in a linear feature!

© 2010 Bob Doering


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X-BAR R CHARTS
Why are X-bar – R chart control limits ridiculously tight
for precision machining?

• Because they are based on the range of your sample.


• The variation of the range of your sample is nearly zero,
except for your measurement error!
• It has nothing to do with your process variation over
time!

© 2010 Bob Doering


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X-BAR R CHARTS
The X bar chart from the X bar – R charts
represent the average of an insignificant
sample of measurements for a of a
circular feature
Measuring multiple samples is a waste of
time in precision machining
R charts from the X bar – R charts
represent the range of measurement error
Control limits are calculated using
statistics for the wrong distribution – the
normal distribution
© 2010 Bob Doering
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PRECONTROL CHARTS

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X-MR CHART

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X-MR CHART
• You might be able to use the X-MR chart if
your roundness is insignificant versus
your specification
• If you use the X-MR chart, you cannot use
the traditional calculations for control
limits for the X chart – you must use the
control limits for the uniform distribution
• If you use the X-MR chart, you can use
the traditional calculations for control
limits for the MR chart

© 2010 Bob Doering


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Rule No.1
Original data should be presented in a
way that will preserve the evidence of
the original data for all the predictions
assumed to be useful.

-Dr. Walter A. Shewhart


Statistical Method from the Viewpoint of Quality
Control

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CONTROL CHART DATA

Rule of life:
If you measure one diameter, you
will measure a good one
…and the customer will measure a
bad one!

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CONTROL CHART DATA
How do you control diameters?

Measure the part and record the largest


and smallest diameters
– then you are controlling all possible
diameters!

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CONTROL CHART DATA

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CONTROL CHART DATA

What else can you learn from the


largest and smallest diameter?

The difference between the largest and


smallest diameter – by definition
– is the roundness!

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CONTROL CHART DATA

ROUNDNESS STORY
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CONTROL CHART DATA

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CONTROL CHART DATA

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TREND CHART

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CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS

TOTAL VARIANCE

 2T =  2Tool Wear +  2Measurement Error +

 2Gage Error +  2Material +  2Temperature +  2Operator

+  2Other
© 2010 Bob Doering
All Rights Reserved
CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS

TOTAL VARIANCE

 2T =  2Tool Wear +  2Measurement Error +

 2Gage Error +  2Material +  2Temperature +  2Operator

+  2Other
© 2010 Bob Doering
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CONTROL CHART DEFINITIONS
TREND CHART

© 2010 Bob Doering


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EWMA chart
(or exponentially-weighted
moving average chart)

© 2010 Bob Doering


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3D CHART: Xi, MR, X within

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X HI/LO – R CHART

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X HI/LO – R CHART

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X HI/LO – R CHART

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X HI/LO – R CHART
CONTROL LIMITS

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X HI/LO – R CHART
CONTROL LIMITS

99.73%

75%

© 2010 Bob Doering


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X HI/LO – R CHART
CONTROL LIMITS

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X HI/LO – R CHART
CONTROL LIMITS
TOTAL VARIANCE

 2T =  2Tool Wear +  2Measurement Error +

 2Gage Error +  2Material +  2Temperature +  2Operator

+  2Other
© 2010 Bob Doering
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GAGE RESOLUTION

There needs to be sufficient gage


resolution to eliminate “chunky” data and
insufficient warning

ndcspc = ((UCL-LCL)*1.41)/GRR >= 10

© 2010 Bob Doering


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X HI/LO – R CHART
TECHNIQUE
Start an OD with the “Lo” value at the
lower control limit. (Start at the center
during the special cause of ‘warm-up’)
Allow the tool to wear until the “Hi” value
hits the upper control limit,
Then adjust down until the “Lo” value hits
the lower control limit.

© 2010 Bob Doering


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X HI/LO – R CHART
TECHNIQUE
Start an ID with the “Hi” value at the
upper control limit. (Start at the center
during the special cause of ‘warm-up’)
Allow the tool to wear until the “Lo” value
hits the lower control limit,
Then adjust down until the “Hi” value hits
the upper control limit.

© 2010 Bob Doering


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X HI/LO CHART
RULES
Look for trends in the “wrong” direction
Can occur with roughing/finishing operations
Roughing tool wears at a different rate that
finishing tool
Change in tool pressure can affect finished
dimension
As long as you know the cause – continue
If not, stop and assess the problem

© 2010 Bob Doering


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R CHART
RULES
If the Range starts to increase, this
means the roundness is getting worse
Increased roundness is a leading
indicator of tool wear, and by changing
the tool at the control limit for the range,
you will maintain more consistent results
and may catch the tool before it breaks

© 2010 Bob Doering


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EVALUATING CAPABILITY

The ratio of the tolerance to the


process variation spread

USL - LSL
Capability =
UCL - LCL

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EVALUATING CAPABILITY
Process Variation (Control Limits)
versus Specifications

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EVALUATING CAPABILITY

Capability = USL - LSL


UCL - LCL

USL – LSL
1.33 =
.75(USL – LSL)
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EVALUATING CAPABILITY

Capability = USL - LSL


UCL - LCL

USL – LSL
1.66 =
.60(USL – LSL)
© 2010 Bob Doering
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EVALUATING CAPABILITY

Capability = USL - LSL


UCL - LCL

USL – LSL
2.00 =
.50(USL
.50 – LSL)
© 2010 Bob Doering
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SAMPLING ERROR

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SAMPLING ERROR

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SAMPLING ERROR

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CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

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CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
REDUCE THE TOOL WEAR SLOPE!
Less operator intervention
Less PROCESS variation!

© 2010 Bob Doering


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SPECIAL CAUSES
Machine Warm-up
Operator Breaks
Material Changes
Tool Breakage
Operator Changes
Training
© 2010 Bob Doering
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CORRECT STEPS FOR SPC
1. Develop the total variance equation
2. Determine which variance factors are adjustable,
which are noise, and which can be set as a constant.
3. Minimize the variation of each of the participating
variables - get the process in a steady state and
capable.
4. Accurately determine the correct distribution of each of
the remaining variances
5. Determine which of the remaining variance factors you
are going to chart
6. Pick the correct chart to evaluate each of those
variance factors (variables)
© 2010 Bob Doering
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CONCLUSION
• Precision diameters and lengths should
be primarily affected by tool wear
• Tool wear and associated adjustment for
tool wear generates the “sawtooth curve”
• The sawtooth curve’s distribution is the
uniform or rectangular distribution
• The uniform distribution is non-normal,
and does not follow the rules of
normality, such as Cpk calculations or the
‘Western Electric Rules” for control chart
evaluation
© 2010 Bob Doering
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CONCLUSION
• The X bar chart from the X bar – R charts
represent the average of a statistically
insignificant sample of measurements for
a of a circular feature
• R charts from the X bar – R charts
represent the range of measurement error
• Control limits are calculated using
statistics for the wrong distribution – the
normal distribution

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CONCLUSION
• X hi/lo – R charts represent the GD&T
characteristics of a circular feature:
diameter and the zone represented by
roundness (or length and parallelism for a
linear dimension)
• X hi/lo – R charts provide more valuable
data, such as tool wear rate
• X hi/lo – R charts use the correct uniform
distribution for precision machining

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CONCLUSION
• X hi/lo – R charting techniques can be
expanded to control taper
• Automated tool wear compensation is not
statistical process control
• The algorithm for compensation
becomes the process, not tool wear
• Lose some benefits of SPC because
the constant adjustment masks the
information
• Would help if the compensation was
tracked
© 2010 Bob Doering
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CONCLUSION

"The total information is


given by the observed
distribution.”
-Dr. Walter A. Shewhart
Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product

© 2010 Bob Doering


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CorrectSPC

PROCESS CONTROL FOR


© 2010 Bob Doering
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© 2010 Bob Doering
All Rights Reserved
CorrectSPC
•Bob Doering has been in the quality field for over 18 years.
•He is currently a quality engineer for an automotive component
manufacturing firm.
•He has industrial experience for over 33 years, many of which were in
precision machining of automotive and medical components.
•He is an adjunct instructor at Lorain County Community College in
Engineering Technology and Enrollment Services departments, and has
lectured classes in Metrology and Quality Management.
•He holds associates degrees from Lorain County Community College of
Elyria, Ohio and The University of Akron of Akron, Ohio; BA in Business and
MBA in Systems Management from Baldwin-Wallace College, Berea, Ohio.
•He holds CMQ/OE, CQE, CQA, CMI (ASQ) certifications.
•He has implemented the CorrectSPC concepts in precision machining for
15 years with significant success.

© 2010 Bob Doering


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