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WELCOME TO THE

PRESENTATION OF
‘MEAN VALUE THEOREM’
 What we actually mean by this theorem??
 In mathematics, the mean value theorem states, roughly: that
given a planar arc between two endpoints, there is at least one
point at which the tangent to the arc is parallel to the secant
through its endpoints.
The theorem is used to prove global statements about a
function on an interval starting from local hypotheses about
derivatives at points of the interval.
More precisely, if a function f is continuous on the closed
interval [a, b], where a
< b, and differentiable on the open interval (a, b), then there
exists a point c in
(a, b) such that
For any function that is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on
(a, b) there exists some c in the interval (a, b) such that the secant
joining the endpoints of the interval [a, b] is parallel to the tangent
at c.
 PROOF OF THE ABOVE THEOREM-

 The equation of the secant through (af(a)) and (bf(b)) is


 y f(a)=b af(b) f(a)(x a) which we can rewrite as y=b af(b) f(a)(x
a)+f(a)
 Let g(x)=f(x) b af(b) f(a)(x a)+f(a)
 Note that g(a)=g(b)=0. Also, g is continuous on [ab] and
differentiable on (ab) since f is. So by Rolle's Theorem there exists c in
(ab) such that g(c)=0.

 But g(x)=f(x) b af(b) f(a), so g(c)=f(c) b af(b) f(a)=0 Therefore, f(c)=b


af(b) f(a) and the proof is complete.
 There are different types of Mean
Value Theorem, such that 1. ROLLE'S
THEOREM, 2.LAGRANGE'S MEAN
VALUE THEOREM, 3.CAUCHY'S MEAN
VALUE
THEOREM, 4.TAYLOR'S
THEOREM(Generalised form of Mean
Value Theorem),
5.MACLAURIN'S THEOREM
 Starting with the Rolle's theorem
we can understand what Mean
value theorem actually is-
 APPROACH 1- GEOMETRICAL
INTERPRETATION OF ROLLE'S
THEOREM
IN CALCULUS, ROLLE'S THEOREM ESSENTIALLY STATES THAT ANY REAL-VALUED DIFFERENTIABLE
FUNCTION THAT ATTAINS EQUAL VALUES AT TWO DISTINCT POINTS MUST HAVE A STATIONARY POINT
SOMEWHERE BETWEEN THEM—THAT IS, A POINT WHERE THE FIRST DERIVATIVE (THE SLOPE OF THE
TANGENT LINE TO THE GRAPH OF THE FUNCTION) IS ZERO.
If a real-valued function ƒ is continuous
on a closed interval [a, b],
differentiable on the open interval (a,
b), and ƒ(a) = ƒ(b), then there exists a
c in the open interval (a, b) such that
f'(c) = 0.
 STATEMENT OF THE THEOREM-
If a real-valued function f is
continuous on a proper closed
interval [a, b], differentiable on the
open interval (a, b), and f(a) = f(b),
then there exists at least one c in
the open interval (a, b) such that
f’(c)=0
 First example-
For a radius r > 0, consider the function

Its graph is the upper semicircle centered at the origin. This function is
continuous on the closed interval [ r,r] and differentiable in the open interval
( r,r), but not differentiable at the endpoints r and r. Since f( r) = f(r), Rolle's
theorem applies, and indeed, there is a point where the derivative of f is zero.
Note that the theorem applies even when the function cannot be
differentiated at the endpoints because it only requires the function to be
differentiable in the open interval.
 Second example-

If differentiability fails at an interior point of the interval, the conclusion of


Rolle's theorem may not hold. Consider the absolute value function
Then f(−1) = f(1), but there is no c between −1 and 1 for
which the derivative is zero. This is because that function,
although continuous, is not differentiable at x = 0. Note that
the derivative of f changes its sign at x = 0, but without
attaining the value 0. The theorem cannot be applied to
this function, clearly, because it does not satisfy the
condition that the function must be differentiable for every
x in the open interval. However, when the differentiability
requirement is dropped from Rolle's theorem, f will still have
a critical number in the open interval (a,b), but it may not
yield a horizontal tangent (as in the case of the absolute
value repress
ented in the graph).
 Generalization-
The second example illustrates the following generalization of Rolle's
theorem:
Consider a real-valued, continuous function f on a closed interval
[a,b] with f(a) = f(b). If for every x in the open interval (a,b) the right-
hand limit

and the left-hand limit

exist in the extended real line [−∞,∞], then there is some number c in
the open interval
(a,b) such that one of the two limits
 Importance of Rolle's Theorem in
everyday life-
Since Rolle's theorem asserts the existence of a point where the derivative vanishes,
we assume that we already know basic notions like continuity and differentiability. One way to
illustrate the theorem in terms of a practical example is to look at the calendar listing the
precise time for sunset each day. One notices that around the precise date in the sumwhen
sunset is the latest, the precise hour changes very little from day to day in the vicinity of the
precise date. This is an illustration of Rolle's theorem because near a point where the derivative
vanishes, the function changes very little.

Maths is a topic that's useful for everything and nothing. We


use it a lot on the job where we work. If we go through an oil analysis laboratory (Its kind of like
a pathology for trucks if you can imagine that.) We test oil samples to see if there is a problem
with the truck. Our lab tests generate a lot of data and there's a lot of opportunities to apply
mathematics and statistics to our work, and we do.
 Detection of spot bubbles in oil
sample-
3. We also use robots in our lab to automate many of our tasks. We use image processing to
recognize bar codes and spot bubbles in oil. There's a LOT of calculus and mathematics
behind these tasks.As for specific applications, these theorems are used in developing
numerical methods of solving equations.

4.Probably the most useful application of these theorems is to give students a better
understanding of calculus which is used in so many different areas of our lives.
5.Image processing has lots of calculus and its used in many different fields such as medical
imaging (CT scans, MRI, diagnosing sick patients), industrial automation (quality control,
bubble detection etc ..) and security (I have a friend who worked in facial recognition
software for airports).
WE OFTENLY USE ROLLE'S THEOREM FOR IMAGE PROCESSING.
For those interested in computer games. Calculus is used in physics engines which keep track
of moving objects in game.
Its also used in computer graphics to give you very shiny
realistic looking modern computer games and scientific
visualization.

Rolle's Theorem is used in neural networks and control


theory which are used for many things including
controlling industrial processes and more importantly ...
teaching robots to play soccer.
6.You can explain Rolle's theorem by saying that if your
average speed during a journey from A to B say 50km/hr
then there had to be a time when your instantaneous
speed was 50 kms/hour as well. Significance of Rolle's
theorem.
HERE IT ENDS……..

THANK TOU ALL.