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MATERIALS SCIENCE

& AALearner’s
Learner’sGuide
Guide

ENGINEERING
AN INTRODUCTORY E-BOOK
Anandh Subramaniam
FB408, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur- 208016
Phone: (+91) (512) 259 7215, Fax: (+91) (512) 259 7505
Kindly send your
comments and
Email: anandh@iitk.ac.in, URL: home.iitk.ac.in/~anandh
feedback for
improvement at this
email address
Kantesh Balani
Project coordination

Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)


Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur- 208016
Phone: (+91) (512) 259 6194, Fax: (+91) (512) 259 7505
Email: kbalani@iitk.ac.in, URL: http://home.iitk.ac.in/~kbalani/

Funded by MHRD, Govt. of India through NMEICT


MATERIALS SCIENCE
&
ENGINEERING
AALearner’s
Learner’sGuide
Guide

Anandh Subramaniam
Kantesh Balani

To
My Parents
&
My Daughter Luminaa
MHRD, Govt. of India through NMEICT
Basic References

 Though the reader can consult the following books; the contents of the e-book course may
often differ in the rigour and details from these and other books.

 Materials Science and Engineering (5th Edition)


V. Raghavan
Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 2004.
 Callister's Materials Science and Engienering
William D Callister (Adapted by R. Balasubramaniam)
Wiley Inida (P) Ltd., 2007.
 The Science and Engineering of Materials
Donald. R. Askeland & Pradeep Phulé
Cengage Learning, 2006.

Click hereSlide
Clickhere Slide66: :Jump
JumptotoNavigator
Navigator Page
Page
For Contents

Click hereSlide
Clickhere Slide88: :Jump
JumptotoHyperlink
HyperlinkLibrary
Library

Click hereVideo
Clickhere Videolibrary
library: :Jump
JumptotoVideo/Graphics
Video/GraphicsLibrary
Library
What will you learn?

 Introduction to diverse kinds of engineering materials


 Overview of what determines the properties of materials and how we engineer
them
 Structure of materials and various lengthscales: crystal structure, electromagnetic
structure, defect structure, microstructure…
 Stability and metastability of materials: the thermodynamics and kinetics
 The tools used in materials science: x-ray diffraction, phase diagrams, TTT
diagrams…
 Properties of materials: elasticity, plasticity, fracture, fatigue, creep, conduction,
magnetism…

This ebook hopefully will prove an invaluable guide to a ‘learner of materials science & engineering’
(Credits, Syllabus, Marks… are just incidental!)

Click here to take a diagnostic test to see if you are ready for this course!

A teacher’s job is to uncover and not cover the syllabus”- Richard M Felder
Guidelines to Readers
 The contents have been developed such that most of the material is in the form of figures, flow charts, video graphics
and less is in the form of text. Hence, instead of saying happy reading we wish you happy viewing!

 Instruction for viewing


 Using Powerpoint files (.ppt). Click on the relevant hyperlink on the Navigator page.
 In the PowerPoint presentations Right Click on the Menu bar to launch the web toolbar
(you can use this to navigate back and forth)
 Using .pdf (Portable Document Format) files. Adobe Acrobat Reader- freeware (http://get.adobe.com/uk/reader/) will
be required for this purpose.
 Using Open Office. Powerpoint (.ppt) and Open Office Presentation (.odp) files can be opened with Open Office (
http://download.openoffice.org/).

  VIEWING POWERPOINT FILES


 Start with the PowerPoint files by double clicking on any file.
 To start PowerPoint (PPT) presentation from the first slide  press F5
 To start PowerPoint (PPT) presentation from the current slide  press Shift + F5
 To scroll down slides use Page Down or 
 Text hyperlinks are underlined in blue colour
  OTHER TIPS IN VIEWING
 Text boxes and figures may also be hyperlinked
(curser has to be placed on the item to see that it is hyperlinked- arrow will change into a hand( ))
 Some of the hyperlinks may have screen tips  place curser on the hyperlink to see tip
 If you want to open a hyperlink as a separate presentation  Click on the hyperlink
 If you want to open a hyperlink within the current window in the current presentation 
press Control + Click on the hyperlink (this will work if you have launched the PPT file directly by double clicking)
 From a 'hyperlinked presentation' to come back to the main presentation  press Esc
 Note on accompanying videos
 At various places in the chapters there are hyperlinks to videos (.mpg) files → to view these you will need an
appropriate viewer (e.g. windows media player). (.gif graphics will directly play inside .ppt)
 A listing of these videos is given in the video_library.ppt
 Though the chapters are complete in themselves with figures, these videos give ‘classroom style’ explanation of
concepts using models.

Since concepts are presented in presentation mode,


READ EVERY LINE AND EVERY WORD…

 A note on the platform chosen for presentation


 Windows (XP) based applications have been used to develop the course material.
These include: Word, Excel and Powerpoint (2003 versions)
 Users of Linux and other platforms may use the pdf version of the Word and Powerpoint files.
Additionally, students not having access to Microsoft Office may use the OpenOffice freeware to open
the MS office files:
http://www.openoffice.org/ (download and install: http://download.openoffice.org/)
(there might be some losses in conversion- which is usually not major if Office 2003 is used along with Open Office 3.1)
The following hyperlinks are to file-wise substructure. Content-wise substructure will appear in respective chapters.

1. CHAPTER 1: Introduction 7. CHAPTER 7: Diffusion in Solids


1.1 Introduction to Materials
1.2 Hierarchy of Lengthscales 8. CHAPTER 8: Phase Transformations Surface Energy and Surface Ten
Te
Heat Treatment
2. CHAPTER 2: Equilibrium and Kinetics
Solidification, Crystallization and Glass Transition
2.1 Thermodynamics Recovery, Recrystallization and Grain Growth
2.2 Kinetics

3. CHAPTER 3: Crystal Geometry


9. CHAPTER 9: Mechanical Behaviour of Materials
3.1 Overview, Geometry of Crystals
5.1 Introduction
3.2 Miller Indices
5.2 Elasticity
3.3 X-ray Diffraction
5.3 Plasticity
4. CHAPTER 4: Structure of Solids 5.4 Creep
4.1 Metallic Solids 5.5 Fracture
4.2 Ionic and Covalent Solids 5.6 Fatigue

10. CHAPTER 10: Electrical Conductivity


5. CHAPTER 5: Crystal Imperfections
5.1 Overview
11. CHAPTER 11: Semiconductors
5.2 Point Defects (0D)
5.3 Dislocations (1D) 11. CHAPTER 12: Magnetic Materials
5.4 Two Dimensional and Volume Defects (3D)

TER 6: Phase Diagrams


PTER Phase Diagrams Detailed

As in any e-book, work is always in


Guidelines to Teachers & Instructors

 The course contents are extensive in some places and instructors may want to reduce the
content in some topics.
 Instructors may download the appropriate files and delete the portion not needed. This will
help tailor the contents for any specific syllabus or need.
(I.e. you can copy left, right and centre!!).
 If you still want to cite you can use the following:
 MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING: A Learner’s Guide,
Anandh Subramaniam, http://home.iitk.ac.in/~anandh/E-book.htm.
 Any feedback or comments on improvement from instructors and students alike would be
highly appreciated (anandh@iitk.ac.in).
 Kindly take time out ask yourself and me questions: “a well phrased question is half the
answer in itself”.
Hyperlink library
Basics_of_Thermodynamics.ppt Laue_picture.ppt
bonding_and_properties.ppt
line_broadening.ppt
close_packed_crystals.ppt

connection_between_symmetry_and_geometry.ppt magnetic_groups.ppt

constructive_interference.ppt
Making_crystals.ppt

defect_association.ppt
models_for_crystal_structures.ppt
defect_in_defect.ppt
Motifs.ppt

dislocation_stress_fields.ppt
mystry_missing_lattices.ppt

from_L+M_SG.ppt
other_signals_xray.ppt
Graphene_crystal.ppt
ordered_structures.ppt
HCP.ppt
interfaces.ppt parallopiped_space_filling.ppt

ionicity_of_bond.ppt

lattice.ppt
Hyperlink library continued…
UC_OR_lattice.ppt
peierls_stress.ppt
Point_groups_detailed.ppt
proof_rotations_crystal.ppt Understanding_stress.ppt

Quasicrystals.ppt
unit_cell.ppt
reciprocal_lattice.ppt

simple_to_complex_crystal_structures.ppt video_library.ppt

size_factor_compounds.ppt
voids_in_crystals.ppt
space.ppt
weak_interactions.ppt
structure_factor_calculations.ppt
XRD_lattice_parameter_calculation.ppt
sublattice.ppt
symmetry.ppt XRD_sample_patterns.ppt

Symmetry_create_1D_lattice.ppt

symmetry_of_solids.ppt
Acknowledgments  MHRD is acknowledged for funding for the project via the NMEICT.
 I thank Prof. Rajesh Prasad (Applied Mechanics, IIT Delhi) for his ‘fundas’ and
teaching style.
 I thank all my students who have motivated me to make continuous improvement to
the book. [Kindly help by pointing out mistakes and suggestions for improvement].
 I am sincerely indebted to all the feedback, queries, encouragement and kudos* I have
received from across the globe (few are as below).
 Please accept my congrads for your excellent lectures notes provided in your webpage. I have addressed them to students
who need rich and training metallurgical materials. I was wondering if you intend to add the lecture notes on Dislocations
and Plasticity topic? if not, any chance that I can have the same? Good luck,
Ahmad Rezaeian, Research Associate at McGill University in Canada.
 I found your talk "Voids in crystals" in the internet and it seems impressive for me. Is it possible to get the referred
movies?
Frank Rietz, University Magdeburg & Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization Göttingen, Germany.
 I teach an undergraduate course in Materials Science at Vanderbilt University. I ran into a powerpoint of yours that
describes octahedral and tetrahedral voids. I would be grateful if I may use them ONLY for the edification of my students.
Ashok Choudhury, Ph.D., CLP, Sr. Licensing Officer, Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering,, Center
for Technology Transfer and Commercialization, Vanderbilt University, USA.
 My name is Shachar Richter from Tel Aviv University, I am teaching a surface science course and would like to ask you
to use one of your ppt files related to 2D Bravis lattices for this course, Best
Shachar, Center for Nano Science and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
 This past semester, I used a couple slides from your webpage as a tutorial. Namely, the ones on diffusion and crystal
structures. They were really helpful for my teaching practices. Thank you for putting efforts into making them. I am sure
a lot of students all over the world are finding them helpful. Yours sincerely,
SanketFrom
* Kudos: SunilGreek
Navale, Materials
meaning acclaimScience
or praise.and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.