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Curie-Weiss law; Wiess Theory of Paramagnetism:


Lengevins theory failed to explain the complicated
type of dependence of susceptibility upon
temperature exhibited by many paramagnetic
substances
e.g. Compressed & cooled gases
Solid salts & crystals etc.
Moreover, this theory does not throw light on the intimate
relationship between para & ferromagnetic materials
To overcome these problems, the concept of
intermolecular field was introduced by Weiss, on
assuming the mutual influence of magnetic moments.
Molecular field (H
i
) :
The interaction of elementary moments with one another
Let this internal molecular field H
i
be represented
in terms of its own magnetization
H
i
= M

- molecular field coefficient
Quantum Theory of Paramagnetism
. Quantum theory and Classical theory
u cos B
E
P
=
Classical theory : The energy of a system is varied continuously.
=All values of angle are possible.
Quantum theory : The change of energy is discrete i.e is discrete


=
u u u
u
3 2 1
, ,
u
u
L
m
l
=+l
m
l
= - l
B
The component of in the direction of the applied field
eff

B
J
H
M
g =
M
J
: Quantum number associated with J
J, J-1, J-2, -(J-2), -(J-1), -J
J : Integer or half-integer of 1/2
The effective moments( )

eff
Oe erg J J
mc
eh
g
eff
/ ) 1 (
4
+ =
t

B
J J g ) 1 ( + =
Quantum Theory of Paramagnetism
. Brillouin function
- The procedure of derivation is the same as Langavin, except that.
(1)

(2)
u
B
J
H
M
g = cos


}

J
J
J
M
du
t
) (
0
H
M
g
E
B
J P
=
Boltzmann factor =
e e
kT H
M
g kT
E
B
J P
/ /
=

M = (n atoms per unit volume)


(The average magnetic moment resolved in the direction of the field

=
J
J
kT H g
J
J
kT H g
B
J
e
e M
B
J
B
J
M
M
g
n
/
/

)
`


|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
J
a
J J
J
J
J
ngM
a
B
J
2
`
coth
2
1
2
1 2
coth
2
1 2 `

kT
H
kT
H gM
a
H B
J

= = `
,
A special case
If
kT
J J
kT H g M
B
B J
3
) 1 ( g
then
If
2 2
+
=
<<

= M/H

0

Quantum Theory of Paramagnetism
When a` is small,
`) , (
3
) 1 `(
`) , (
a J B ngJ M
J
J a
a J B
B
=
+
=
kT
H n
eff
3
2

=
T
C
AkT
N
H
M
eff
= = = =
3
2


k
_
Ak
N
C
eff
3
2

=
X =?
For detail expressions follow S.O. Pillai book
Quantum Theory of Paramagnetism
J
a
J
a
J
J
J
J
M
M
2
`
coth
2
1
2
1 2
coth
2
1 2
`
0

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
Brillouin function, B(J,a)
1) If J = infinite, B(J,a`) =
`
1
` coth
a
a

) ( ) , ( a L a J B =
2) If J=1/2(only spin contribution),
` tanh a`) B(J,
0
a
M
M
= =
. Paramagnetic materials
atoms or ions which have a net magnetic moment
because of noncancellation of the spin and orbital component.
Salts of the transition elements
- Incomplete inner shells
- Magnetic moments due almost to spin(g 2)
- This metal salts obey the Curie or Curie-Weiss law with a small
~
Salts and oxides of the rare earths
Rare-earth elements