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Hathematics Fur Sciences

AppIIcotIe I coIcuIut t
epuIotIe 0rewtb
Lecturer : nc|h Abdu| Ho||m b|n Amot
2
hat is uulatiun gruwth2
Population growth is the change oI population over time. It is
either the change oI human population or animal population
and sometimes in plant population.
However, in calculus, we need to know the diIIerential
equation concept to calculate the population at time t.
The figure shows that
the population grows
exponentially.
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Concept tLut Is
beIng upp!Ied to
cu!cu!ute tLe
popu!utIon gvowtL.
|fferent|o| quot|on -
5eorob|e quot|on
amles in differential equatiun.
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y dy x dx + =
xom|e I
ind the general equation for the differential equation below :




y dy x dx
y dy x dx
y dy x dx
y x
c
+ =
=
=
= +
5o|ut|on
5
xom|e 2


dy
y x x y
dx
+ + =
5o|ut|on








dy
y x x y
dx
dy
y x x y
dx
y x dy
y x dx
y x
dx dy
y x
+ + =
= +
=
+
=
+





ln ln
ln ln
x y
dx dy
x y
dx dy
x y
dx dy
x y
x x y y c
y y x x c
+
=
+ = +
+ = +
+ = + +
+ = +
ind the general equation for the differential equation below :
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xom|e 1
ind the general equation for the differential equation below :

dy x
dx y
+
=
5o|ut|on


dy x
dx y
dy y x dx
y dy dx xdx
y x
x c
+
=
= +
= +
= + +


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xom|e 4
ind the general equation for the differential equation below :

dy
yx
dx
=
5o|ut|on

ln

ln
dy
yx
dx
dy
xdx
y
dy xdx
y
x
y c
y x c
=
=
+
=

' '
= +
= +

licatiun uf differential equatiun
in uulatiun gruwth :
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Puulatiun uf Salmun fish.
%he population oI Salmon increases in a lake and Iollows a
equation .%he initial population is at time t .
%ime is measured in years. AIter one years, a biologist estimated
that there were 55 populations oI Salmon in the lake.
i. Find the general equation Ior the Salmon population as a
Iunction oI time.
ii. Estimate the population at the end oI three years, iI the same
rate growth continues.
dn
kn
dt
=
9
Sulutiun :
et n number oI population oI Salmon Iish.
By using ,Iind the general equation oI the Salmon population.
i. By using separable equation :

ln
ln
kt c
e
kt c
kt
dn
kdt
n
dn kdt
n
n kt c
n e
n e
n Ae
+
+
=
=
= +
=
=
=
c
A e =
et,
10
%o Iind the general equation, we must Iind ,
At time t , n , At time t , n 5
%he general equation Ior Salmon population is :

kt
k
n Ae
Ae
Ae
A
=
=
=
=


55
55

5.5
ln5.5 ln
.75
kt
k
k
k
k
e
n Ae
n e
e
e
e
k
k
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

.75

t
n e =
11
By using the general equation given :
At time t , n ?
Answer : 5 Salmon aIter years.
.75

t
n e =

.75
.75
5.5

5
t
n e
n e
n e
n
=
=
=
=

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Puulatiun uf Buman in lndia
%he population oI human in India was Iound to be millions in
the year by Census. %he next Census in showed a
population Iigure oI millions. Find :
i. %he equation Ior this population growth.
ii. Predict the likely population Ior the same trend in .
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i. By using separable equation :
et n the number oI population oI human in India.
et,
ear Populations
millions
millions
?
Sulutiun :

ln
ln
kt c
e
kt c
kt
dn
kdt
n
dn kdt
n
n kt c
n e
n e
n Ae
+
+
=
=
= +
=
=
=
c
A e =
14
%o Iind the general equation, we must to Iind
At time t , n millions.
At time t , n millions.
%he general equation Ior human population in India is :
k

. L

.
.
kt
k
n Ae
n Ae
Ae
A
=
=
L =
= L

. L

. .
.
.
.
ln. ln
.
kt
k
k
k
e
n Ae
e
e
e
k
k
=
L = L
L
=
L
=
=
=


.
.
t
n e = L
15
By using the general equation given :
At time t , n ?
Answer : 7 millions human in .

.
.
t
n e = L




.
.
.

.
.
.
7.
t
n e
n e
n e
n
= L
= L
= L
= L

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Puulatiun uf Bacteria
%he number oI bacteria, n in a colony grows according the law
where k is the positive constant. II the number increase Irom
to in days, Iind to the nearest hundred, the number
aIter a Iurther days more.
Sulutiun :
i. Use seperable equation :
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et
dn
kn
dt
=
ln
kt c
c kt
kt
dn
kn
dt
dn
kdt
n
n kt c
n e
n e e
n Ae
+
=
=
= +
=
=
=

c
A e =
18
%o Iind the general equation, we must to Iind ,
When t , n When t , n
%he general equation Ior population oI bacteria is :
Time (days) 0 4 7
umber oI
population
n
k

kt
k
n Ae
Ae
A
=
=
=


ln ln
ln
.7
k
k
t
e
e
k
k
=
=
=
=
=

.7

t
n e =
19
By using the general equation given :
At time t 7, n ?
%he population oI bacteria is 5 in 7 days.
.7

t
n e =
.7

t
n e =
.77

5
n e
n
=
=

20
%,2,9