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AMR Adaptive Multi Rate Training

Training Document
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Adaptive Multirate Training


This material has been edited by Tomas Novosad & Fabricio Velez based on various input:

Other/former Nokia material TarTec (ex NSR/Nokia Malaga) Samur Worasilphai (NET/Bothell), Octavio Garcia (NET/Bothell)

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AMR Course Objectives


After this course, participants are able to :

Know how AMR works The purpose and planning aspects of the feature Understanding of AMR parameters Inter-working of AMR with other features HW/SW requirements for AMR Impact of AMR on network performance

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Table of Contents
AMR Introduction AMR Benefits

AMR Codecs
Nokia AMR Link Adaptation and codec mode adaptation Nokia AMR interaction with other Nokia features AMR support in Nokia system Nokia AMR parameter Nokia AMR KPI Nokia AMR planning aspects AMR implementation

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Introduction :

Name : Company : How long : Position : Past experience : Expectation from AMR training:

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AMR Introduction

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Hard/Soft Blocking
Hard blocking The whole radio resource is in use - no more calls can be established due to lack of free radio timeslots.

Dominates with large reuse factors = Wideband deployment

Soft blocking The capacity of individual cells is limited by the level of the interference rather than the number of TRXs available

Is dominating with tight reuse patterns = Narrowband deployments

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Spectral Efficiency & Performance


Standard Measure: Erl/km/MHz Nokia Measure: Effective Frequency Load ( Erl/MHz) Spectral Efficiency is equivalent to performance

Assuming no lack of radio resources or HW blocking


Performance is a trade-off between capacity AND quality
Key Performance Indicator CDR, BQS Two alternative solutions

Operating Point

Targeted quality level

Quality Enhancement is measured in terms of increased quality for the same load

Dropped calls due to coverage gaps


Traffic Load Capacity Increase is measured in terms of additional load at the same quality level

Increased performance (spectral efficiency) delivers improved quality and/or higher capacity for the same quality criteria
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Effective Frequency Load Defined


EFL is a measure of the average frequency utilization in the area Represents how loaded each frequency can be across the system EFL is proportional to spectral efficiency EFL is directly proportional to the carried traffic x % higher EFL = x % more carried traffic
Busy hour area level average Erlangs/cell

ErlBH 1 EFL Tot # freq Ave# ( TCH ) TRX


Total number of frequencies used to carry the traffic
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Average number of timeslots/TRX

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Effective Frequency Load Explained


EFL is a measure of the average frequency utilization in the area Represents how loaded each frequency can be across the system Assume 1.2 Mhz (6 x 200 kHz carriers) of hopping frequencies in addition to the BCCH carrier Assume in each cell 5 simultaneous voice users on the average

In this case the Effective frequency load is ~ 5 Erlangs / 48 timeslots = 10.4%


Thus, in each hopping frequencies we can have 8 (timeslots per carrier) x 10.4% = 0.83 Erlangs or 6 X 0.83 = 4.98 Erlangs in hopping layer

200 kHz

200 kHz

200 kHz

200 kHz

200 kHz

200 kHz

Frequency

6 frequencies @ 200 kHz each


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Adaptive Multi-Rate Codec (1/2)


Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) codec consists of a family of codecs (source and channel codecs with different trade-off bit-rates) operating in the GSM FR and HR channels modes The AMR system exploits the channel performance and robustness added by the coding rates by adapting the speech and channel coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel AMR adapts its error protection level (select its optimum channel mode and codec mode) to the local radio channel and traffic load conditions to deliver the best possible combination of speech quality and system capacity Codec mode adaptation for AMR is based on received channel quality estimation in both MS and BTS, followed by a decision on the most appropriate speech and channel codec mode to apply at a given time The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by BSC via layer 3 signaling MS shall support all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to 4 speech codec modes is used during a call
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Adaptive Multi Rate Codec (2/2)


GSM FR/EFR channel gross bit-rate is 22.8 kbit/s in GSM FR/EFR: 13 kbit/s speech coding and 9.8 kbit/channel coding (HR channel gross bit rate 11.4 kbit/s) For AMR case, different codecs use different bit rate to encode speech (source coding). The rest of the gross bit-rate is used for channel protection
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Channel bit-rate (kbit/s)

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Channel coding Speech coding

Robustness
15 10 5 0
FR 12.2 FR 10.2 FR FR 7.4 FR 6.7 FR 5.9 FR 7.95 5.15 FR 4.75 HR HR 7.4 HR 6.7 HR 5.9 HR 7.95 5.15 HR 4.75

Speech Qual
AMR codec mode

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Algorithms Related to AMR


In order to select the codec, MS and infrastructure vendors implement the Link Adaptation algorithm or Codec Mode Adaptation Additionally, there is another algorithm to change the channel rate between FR and HR codecs, which is called Channel Mode Adaptation

Set of Codecs

Codec Mode Adapt.

Channel Mode Adaptation

AMR

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AMR Benefits

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Capacity and Coverage Gain


Link level results show very high improvement in the terms of TCH FER when robust AMR modes are used As high as 6 dB improvement at 1% FER in C/I can be achieved Therefore, high capacity gain can be expected when robust AMR modes are utilized In addition, increased robustness to channel errors can be utilized in the cell coverage, i.e. lower C/I can be allowed at the cell edge However, in the mixed traffic case the cell coverage has to be planned according to EFR mobiles With respect to signaling channels, the retransmissions schemes used by SACCH and FACCH channels maintain the probability of signalling success even for very degraded conditions

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Capacity Increase with AMR


Due to robust AMR codec modes, very low TCH FER compared to EFR In 850 MHz case all mobiles are AMR capable, but this comparison illustrates the capacity gain AMR provides when it is introduced in a typical network
10 9 8
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 Effective Frequency load (%)
ONE-LAYER (RF-hopping 2/2, no BCCH included)
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AMR MS penetration: 0% AMR MS penetration: 25% AMR MS penetration: 50% AMR MS penetration: 75% AMR MS penetration: 100%
~150% gain relative to EFR

Capacity gain based on the 2% outage of the bad TCH FER samples

Relative Frequency TCH FER > 5.4 % (%)

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Improved BCCH Plan


Since the average C/I found in a cell area can be measurably less than that used in a non-AMR network and still provide comparable quality to EFR, the existing clean BCCH layer can be tightened, potentially releasing frequencies to be used on the non-BCCH layer This offers improved speech quality and extra capacity for TCH, especially in the narrow band deployment (frequency band less than 5 MHz) However, if EFR roaming mobiles are to be taken care of, the BCCH will have to be planned accordingly How to plan networks to ensure the quality for the old EFR mobiles? One method is to use more aggressive power adjustment for AMR mobiles in order to decrease the average interference level in the network Due to better error correction capability against the channel errors lower C/I target can be set for AMR mobiles hence lower PC thresholds can be used Therefore, the overall interference decreases in the network (smaller average transmission power) and thus the quality of the existing EFR connections increase
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Half-Rate Utilization in AMR Codec


Half-rate is an efficient way to increase capacity in the case of limited number of TRXs per cell AMR HR codec obtains remarkable better speech quality than previous GSM EFR HR codec AMR FR obtains better quality than AMR HR only when higher FR modes than 7.4 are used (due to higher number of speech coding bits) AMR FR 7.4 kbit/s mode and AMR HR 7.4 kbit/s mode have the same speech quality when the C/I is high (error free case) AMR HR channels can be then used in high C/I conditions without noticeably speech quality loss In theory for ideal frequency hopping about 11-12 dB C/I is required for AMR HR to obtain the evaluated good speech quality limit (in real networks, depending on the BTS configuration and on FH mode used, it might be necessary 1-4 dB higher) Based on this, all connections having at least 12 dB C/I could be handed over to HR channel remaining the good speech quality

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AMR FR+HR vs. AMR FR Usage


3 .0%

4
2 .5%

AMRFR +HR AMRFR

22.98%

3.5

AMR FR AMR FR+HR

Bad TCH FER samples [%]

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

2 .0%

TCH FER > 4%

HR Usage
1 .5%

36.23% 44.83%

31.49%

54.48%
1 .0%

0 .5%

0 .0% 17 %

1 9%

21%

23 %

2 5%

27%

29 %

3 1%

Effective Frequency Load (% )

10 15 20 25 Effective Frequency Load [%]

30

35

The performance degradation in FER between the usage of AMR FR+HR and AMR FR is equivalent to the quality loss of 0.2 in the MOS between AMR FR and HR codec

The MOS performance of AMR FR+HR and AMR FR are about the same Capacity gain in FH carrier when AMR FR+HR is used continue to be ~150%

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Benefits For End User


MOS vs. CIR
Speech Quality Gains
4.5

4
3.5 3 MOS 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 C/I (dB) FR 12.2 MOS FR 7.4 MOS FR 5.9 MOS FR 4.75 MOS HR 7.4 MOS HR 5.9 MOS HR 4.75 MOS

A user in good radio conditions perceives the same quality as EFR. However, a user in bad radio conditions still receives acceptable speech quality while with EFR it would not received satisfactory speech quality.

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Benefits For Operator


100%
fs475iFH

Capacity / Coverage Gains

fs515iFH fs590iFH fs670iFH fs740iFH fs795iFH fs102iFH fs122iFH

10%
TCH FER

1%

0% 10 8 6 C/I [dB] 4 2 0

Approx. 5.5 dB link level gain in hopping layer This turns into approx. 140% capacity gain for AMR-FR Coverage enhancement (>4dB) Tighter BCCH reuse schemes. Saving of resources by deploying AMR-HR
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Benefits of AMR Summary


Speech quality enhancement: AMR maintains good speech quality in the situation where the connection faces low C/I or low signal level Capacity and coverage gain: Link level simulation results illustrated improvement in terms of TCH FER (up to 5.5dB at 1% FER in C/I) Signalling channel performance: due to retransmissions schemes used by these channels the probability of signalling success maintain very high even for very degraded conditions Improved BCCH plan: tighter frequency reuse or better quality with same frequency reuse, potentially releasing frequencies to be used on the nonBCCH layer. HR utilisation increases the hardware capacity of the cell since two half-rate connections can be allocated to fill only one timeslot. When compare AMR HR to previous GSM HR codec, it is noticed that AMR HR obtains remarkable better speech quality

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AMR Codecs

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AMR Codecs
Voice quality Full Rate Half rate

EFR 12.2
10.2 7.95 IS-136 7.95 7.4 7.4 6.7 6.7 5.9 5.9

AMR codecs: 8 for FR and 6 for HR

AMR Full Rate performance compared to Full Rate EFR in Clean Speech MOS (Mean Opinion Score) 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0
1.0 No Errors

6 dB gain in performance
EFR AMR FR
16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I 10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I 4 dB C/I

Robustness

5.15 5.15 4.75 4.75 of codecs

New AMR family tolerates 6 dB higher interference than current Speech bit rate GSM EFR codec

AMR Half Rate performance compared to Full Rate in Clean Speech MOS (Mean Opinion Score) Quality loss 5.0 of ~ 0.2 between AMR HR and FR 4.0 3.0 2.0 AMR HR AMR FR
4 dB C/I

Can be directly utilized for higher capacity with Frequency Hopping Higher interference tolerance Reduced time slot occupancy
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1.0 No Errors 19 dB C/I 16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I 10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I

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Channel and Speech Codecs for AMR


C hannel C hannel mode codec Mode C H0-FS C H1-FS C H2-FS TC H/FR C H3-FS C H4-FS C H5-FS C H6-FS C H7-FS C H8-HS TC H/HR C H9-HS C H10-HS C H11-HS C H12-HS 12.20kbit/s (GSMEFR) 10.20 kbit/s 7.95 kbit/s 7.40 kbit/s (IS-641) 6.70 kbit/s 5.90 kbit/s 5.15 kbit/s 4.75 kbit/s 7.95 kbit/s (* ) 7.40 kbit/s (IS-641) 6.70 kbit/s 5.90 kbit/s 5.15 kbit/s Source coding bit-rate, speech Net bit-rate, in-band channel 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s C hannel coding bit-rate, speech 10.20 kbit/s 12.20 kbit/s 14.45 kbit/s 15.00 kbit/s 15.70 kbit/s 16.50 kbit/s 17.25 kbit/s 17.65 kbit/s 3.25 kbit/s 3.80 kbit/s 4.50 kbit/s 5.30 kbit/s 6.05 kbit/s C hannel coding bit-rate, inband 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s

C H13-HS 4.75 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 6.45 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s (* ) Requires 16 kbit/s TRAU. Therefore it is not seen as a feasible codec mode and w ill not be supported by Nokia BSS10 .

In high-error conditions more bits are used for error correction to obtain error robust coding, while in good transmission conditions a lower amount of bits is needed for sufficient error protection and more bits can therefore be allocated for source coding
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Performance of AMR-FR
AMR-FR vs. EFR
M OS 5.0

Experiment 1a - Test Results

GSM 06.75
4.0

3.0

2.0

Sel. Requir. AMR-FR EFR

Clean Speech
Conditions C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB 3.65 4.08 3.65 3.96 3.05 3.59 1.53 2.66 C/I= 1 dB

1.0 Sel. Requir. AMR-FR EFR

No Errors 4.01 4.06 4.01

C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB 4.01 4.06 4.01 4.13 4.01

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Performance of AMR-HR
AMR-HR vs. GSM-FR
5.0 M OS

Experiment 1b - Test Results

GSM 06.75

4.0

3.0 Sel. Requir. AMR-HR EFR FR HR No Errors 3.99 4.11 4.21 3.50 3.35 C/I=19 dB 3.99 4.04

2.0

Clean Speech
C/I=13 dB C/I=10 dB 3.14 3.72 4.21 3.50 3.38 3.74 3.14 3.24 2.74 3.10 3.34 2.74 2.80

Conditions C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB 1.50 2.00 1.58 1.50 1.92

1.0 Sel. Requir. AMR-HR EFR FR HR

C/I=16 dB 3.99 3.96

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Nokia AMR Link Adaptation

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Link Adaptation in AMR Codec (1/2)


Link Adaptation is the capability of AMR feature to vary the codec used according to the link conditions Both network, for uplink, and MS, for downlink, measure the radio conditions in each link and take decisions on which codec should be applied to each way AMR codec mode adaption is done independently in UL and DL There are two link adaptation (LA) modes; the ETSI specified fast LA and the Nokia proprietary slow LA slowAmrLaEnabled: if it is set to "N" (default) it is used ETSI fast LA; if it is set to "Y" it used Nokia slow LA With slow LA, BTS allows in-band codec mode changes only on the SACCH frame interval of 480 ms and this option give better flexibility with HO & PC algorithms Two different types of link adaptation algorithms are defined: Codec Mode Adaptation and Channel Mode Adaptation AMR codec mode adaptation algorithm adapts the bit-rate partitioning between the speech and channel coding for a given channel mode to track changes in the radio link and to account for specific input conditions (speech signal characteristics, acoustic environmental characteristics, etc.) AMR channel mode adaptation algorithm allocates a half-rate or full-rate channel according to channel quality and the traffic load on the cell in order to obtain the best balance between quality and capacity
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Link Adaptation in AMR Codec (2/2)


C/I
30 C/I EFR operation AMR mode

AMR Mode

25

12.2 kbit/s

AMR FR HR 12.2

20

7.95 kbit/s

[dB]

10.2
15
6.70 kbit/s

7.95 7.4 6.7 7.4 6.7

10

5.90 kbit/s

5.9
5.15
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

5.9
5.15 4.75

0 Time[s]

4.75

speec h codin 30 NOKIA g

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chan. codin g

Codec Mode Adaptation

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Codec Mode Adaptation


Codec Mode Adaptation or Link Adaptation (LA) is the algorithm that selects which codec has to be used each moment by the MS (in UL) or by the network (in DL direction). The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by BSC via layer 3 signalling Both the MS and the network implement their own independent LA algorithms LA algorithms are vendor dependant / proprietary

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Objective of Codec Mode Adaptation


Select the codec that provides the best speech quality depending on radio conditions
4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

MOS

FR 12.2 MOS FR 7.4 MOS FR 5.9 MOS FR 4.75 MOS HR 7.4 MOS HR 5.9 MOS HR 4.75 MOS

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

C/I (dB)

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Procedure for Codec Mode Adaptation


4.-DL codec used 3.- Network decides which codec to use for DL

DL LA
1.-Which DL Radio Conditions?

2.-Request a codec for DL

UL LA

2.-Command a codec for UL

1.-Which UL radio conditions?


3.-MS uses the codec commanded by the network for UL

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Functionality
Channel quality estimation calculation (or Link Quality Estimation, LQE) and codec proposal are proprietary Maximum codec change rate: every other speech frame (40ms) The network can override MS's codec requests Inband signaling is more robust than speech codecs
MS BSS

Transcoder

UL Channel Quality DL Codec Proposal UL Adaptation UL codec command DL Channel Quality

16 or 8 16 or kbit/s 8 kbit/s DL Adaptation

DL codec

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Parameters for Link Adaptation


When deploying AMR the following parameters are important for the Link Adaptation: ACS (Active Codec Set) which defines the codecs that can be used in a BTS during a call. Thresholds used: Defines the CIR value to change the codec from a less robust codec to the immediate more robust one in the ACS Hysteresis: the values in dB to add to the thresholds in order to go from a robust codec to the immediate less robust one in the ACS. For instance: ACS= [AFS12.2, AFS7.9, AFS4.75], Thresholds: 12dB, 8dB, Hysteresis: 1dB, 1dB With these settings the change from codec AFS7.9 to AFS4.75 will happen when the CIR is below 8dB, while from AFS4.75 up to AFS7.9 it will be with 9dB.

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Procedure in MS for AMR Link Adaptation


CIR
FadingProfile

Estimator

Meas i

Measi+1 Meas i+2 Meas i+3

...

Filter

CMR

Comparison with Thresholds

CIR norm (LQE)

Conversion to CIR and compensation for Channel Profile

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In band signalling

SF 2

SF 4CMR SF 6 CMR SF 3

CMR

CMR CMI CMI

CMR CMI

CMR CMI

CMR

CMR CMI

UL

SF 1

CMI SF 5 CMI SF 7 CMI

CMI

8 TDMA frames SF 2 CMI SF 4 CMI SF 6 CMI SF 8 CMI

CMI

CMI CMC CMC

CMI CMC

CMI CMC

CMI CMC

DL

SF 1

SF 3

SF CMCSF 5 CMC 7 CMC SF 9 CMC

SF= Speech Frame CMC = Codec Mode Command CMI = Codec Mode Indicator
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time

CMR= Codec ModeRequest

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Example of Nethawk trace

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Impact of wrong LA
Due to wrong LA threshold selection, or wrong estimation of radio conditions, the codec used under certain conditions might not be the best performing one, reducing Speech Quality.
non-ideal LA 1 (Lower MOS & HIGH FER) non-ideal LA 2 (Lower MOS & low FER)

AFS475 AFS7.90

AFS12.2

Actual CIR for codec changes for LA 1


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Ideal CIR for codec changes


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Actual CIR for codec changes for LA 2

Channel Mode Adaptation

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Channel Mode Adaptation


Channel Mode Adaptation is an HO algorithm that aims at select the correct channel rate (FR or HR). The selection of the channel rate depends on 2 main factors: load and quality

Codec

load

Good Quality

FR FR

packing unpacking Bad Quality

HR

HR

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Packing Procedure

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Channel mode adaptation: Packing


Handover between AMR FR and AMR HR is intra-cell handover Spontaneous packing of FR AMR calls to HR AMR calls is triggered when the cell load is high enough, the number of free full rate resources reduces below the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL). Packing continues until the cell load is low enough, the number of free full rate resources increases above the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU).
Free FR TCHs Upper limit for free FR TCHs btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRU)

Lower limit for free FR TCHs btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRL) Time No packing of AMR FR calls Packing of AMR FR calls No packing of AMR FR calls

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Packing from AMR FR to AMR HR (1/2)


Spontaneous Packing of AMR FR to AMR HR call is triggered when

free full rate resources reduces below the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRL) or btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (FRL)

HRL is a BSC level parameter FRL is a BTS level parameter, once defined, it can overwrite HRL

AND FR calls which quality is above the amrHandoverFr(IHRF) for both UL and DL AND they are using the least robust codec mode for both UL and DL

Intra HO threshold Rx qual for AMR FR, Px, Nx: the parameter compares the averaged values of signal quality downlink and uplink measurements for triggering the intra-cell handover process for a AMR FR call in order to switch it to a AMR HR call
Rx qual: Threshold level for a handover process. Px: The Px parameter of Threshold qual uplink Rx qual (QUR) is used. Nx: The parameter of Threshold qual unplink Rx qual (QUR) is used.

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Packing from AMR FR to AMR HR (2/2)


Packing happens to permanent HR channels Packing happens to DR channels which half has been occupied Packing happens when there are even number of FR calls to DR channels. AND BSC has received used codec information in the latest Measurement Result message (when UL DTX is on, BTS does not send this information)

Packing continues until the number of free full rate resources increases above the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU) or btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (FRU) HRU is a BSC level parameter FRU is a BTS level parameter, once defined, it can overwrite HRU Queueing is not allowed for packing procedure

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Un-Packing Procedure

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Unpacking from AMR HR to FR


Spontaneous unpacking of AMR HR calls to AMR FR calls is triggered when the quality of a AMR HR call degrades below the amrHandoverHr(IHRH) for either UL or DL Intra HO threshold Rx quality for AMR HR, Px, Nx. The parameter compares the averaged values of signal quality downlink and uplink measurements for tringgering the intra-cell handover process for a AMR HR call in order to switch it to a AMR FR call

Rx qual: Threshold level for a handover process, Rx qual range: 0..7. Px: The Px parameter of Threshold qual uplink Rx qual (QUR) is used Nx: The Nx parameter of Threshold qual uplink Rx qual (QUR) is used

Queuing is allowed for unpacking procedure

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Nokia AMR Interaction with Other Nokia Features

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Interaction with other features


DADL/B

New adjacent cell parameter to handover AMR calls from non-AMRcapable cells to co-located AMR-capable cells during call set-up phase

Handover

Prioritization of AMR capable cells during internal and external handovers (AMR capable cells which load is low (BTS load threshold (BLT) parameter), are on the top of the handover target cell list) New RxQual thresholds for AMR FR and AMR HR New RxQual thresholds for HOs between AMR channel rates (relates to AMR FR call packing and AMR HR call unpacking)

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Interaction with other features


Power Control

New RxQual thresholds for AMR FR and AMR HR

IFH and IUO

New good and bad C/I thresholds for AMR FR and AMR HR

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Radio Link Timeout Background


3GPP 05.08 states that Radio Link Failure (RLF) in the MS is determined by the success rate of decoding messages on the downlink SACCH The aim of determining RLF in the MS is to ensure that calls with unacceptable voice/data quality, which cannot be improved either by RF power control or handover, are either re-established or released in a defined manner The Radio Link Timeout (RLT) parameter controls that a forced release (drop) will not normally occur until the call has degraded to a quality below that at which the majority of subscribers would have manually released it The RLF procedure is implemented in the RRM at the BSC and is as follows: After the assignment of a dedicated channel a counter is initialized to RLT When a SACCH message is unsuccessfully decoded the counter is decreased by 1 When a SACCH message is successfully decoded the counter is increased by 2 If the counter reaches 0 a RLF is declared Call is released

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Radio Link Timeout AMR FR vs. EFR - Test 1


The RLT is based on SACCH erased frames, which are independent of speech frames The tests were aimed to find RLT value producing the same speech degradation in AMR as EFR would suffer with default RLT value for this traffic (i.e. 20) The indicator used was number of BQS-FER (with FER>50%/25%) between the time when the counter starts decreasing from its top value (64) to the point where the link would be released (i.e., when the counter is decreased by the RLT parameter)
EFR Number of Number of unaccepta una cceptable ble samples sa mples (FER>5 0%) ( FER>25 %) 13 42 54 25 50 42 54 38 50 54 46 58 58 46 67 75 58 67 58 75 54 58 79 58 88 92 63 88 83 88 88 88 75 75 83 83 96 92 83

AMR Number of unacceptable samples (FER>50%) 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Number of unaccepta ble samples (FER>25 %) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Time

RLT

FER

Time

RLT

FER

RLT to select

00:25:55:82 00:25:56:30 00:25:56:78 00:25:57:26 00:25:57:74 00:25:58:23 00:25:58:71 00:25:59:20 00:25:59:68 00:26:00:16 00:26:00:64 00:26:01:12 00:26:01:60 00:26:02:08 00:26:02:56 00:26:03:05 00:26:03:53 00:26:04:01 00:26:04:49 00:26:04:97 00:26:05:45 00:26:05:93 00:26:06:41 00:26:06:89 00:26:07:37 00:26:07:85 00:26:08:34 00:26:08:82 00:26:09:30 rivada: 00:26:09:78 RLT = 44 is equivalent to 0 when using FIXED RLT 00:26:10:26 equal to 20 (DEFAULT 00:26:10:74 NOKIA VALUE) 00:26:11:23 00:26:11:71 00:26:12:19 00:26:12:67 00:26:13:15 00:26:13:63 00:26:14:11

64 64 63 62 64 63 62 64 64 63 62 64 64 63 62 61 60 59 61 60 59 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44

00:26:01:79 00:26:02:27 00:26:02:76 00:26:03:24 00:26:03:72 00:26:04:20 00:26:04:68 00:26:05:16 00:26:05:65 00:26:06:13 00:26:06:61 00:26:07:09 00:26:07:58 00:26:08:06 00:26:08:54 00:26:09:02 00:26:09:50 00:26:09:99 00:26:10:47 00:26:10:95 00:26:11:43 00:26:11:91 00:26:12:40 00:26:12:88 00:26:13:36 00:26:13:84 00:26:14:32 00:26:14:80 00:26:15:28 00:26:15:76 00:26:16:25 00:26:16:73 00:26:17:21

64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 39 38 37 36 35

29 43 75 50 29 50 29 70 21 63 63 82 92 78 58 71 92 91 67 88 88 83 100 63 70 96 88 80 88 82 95 78 92

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 25 26 27 28 29

26

27

RLT has very high impact on DCR


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Radio Link Timeout AMR-FR vs. EFR Test 2


Aim is to evaluate when AMR-FR is used which RLT value will result in comparable performance (point at which call is released) to the recommended RLT for EFR The RLT is based on SACCH erased frames, which are independent of speech frames. The principle of the tests is to find RLT value producing the same speech degradation (FER > 15 % MOS < 1.5 no audible speech during 30 sec before dropping) in AMR as EFR would suffer with default RLT value for this traffic (i.e. 20) The driving route started at a good coverage location and ended at a bad coverage area

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AMR vs EFR: FER Before Dropping


RLT 20
100 90 80 70 100 90 80 70

RLT 28

FER (%)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 to 25 25 to 20 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 5 to 0 seconds before dropping EFR AMR

FER (%)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 to 25 25 to 20 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 5 to 0 seconds before dropping EFR AMR

RLT 32
100 90 80 70 100 90 80 70

RLT 36

FER (%)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 to 25 25 to 20 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 5 to 0 seconds before dropping EFR AMR

FER (%)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 to 25 25 to 20 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 5 to 0 seconds before dropping EFR AMR

FER average every 5 seconds, during last 30 seconds before dropping for: RLT = 20, 28, 32, 36
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Dropped Call Experience


Dropped call experience: how long terminal does not receive any audible speech (MOS<1.5) before it drops During 30 seconds before dropping, FERAMR is lower than FEREFR FEREFR > 15 % during last 30 seconds before dropping, for RLT = 20
AMR, FER > 15 % RLT = 20 RLT = 28 RLT = 32 RLT = 36 RLT = xx 10-15 seconds before dropping 15-20 seconds before dropping 18-22 seconds before dropping 25-30 seconds before dropping 35-40 s. before drop EFR, FER > 15% 25-30 s. before drop

Conclusion: AMRRLT=36 has a similar dropped call experience to EFRRLT=20


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AMR Support in Nokia System

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Elements Needed for AMR Feature


Following network elements and mobile phone are needed to get AMR system feature to work: BTS: Nokia Talk-Family DF6, Nokia Prime Site DF6, Nokia MetroSite CXM3.0-2, Nokia Ultra Site CX3, Connect Site. S10.5 TCSM: TCSM2 with an AMR capable pool (23) MSC: M10 NMS: NetAct OSS3.1 MS: AMR capable phones

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AMR Support in Nokia BTS's


Nokia 2nd nd Generation BTS (DE21 BTS:)
Nokia's Nokia's

generation BTS will not support AMR.


TALK-family BTS: Full Rate Half rate

Nokia Talk-family BTS (DF34 BTS):

Nokia PrimeSite BTS:


Nokia

Talk-family BTS will have AMR support for FR modes 4.75, 5.9, 7.4 and 12.2 as well as for HR modes 4.75, 5.9 and 7.4 (*). With this approach, the link adaptation between full scale of FR modes and almost full scale of HR can be achieved (note that only 4 codecs can be selected to be used during a call). PrimeSite will have same AMR support as Talk. The frequency hopping functionality will be removed from PrimeSite BTSs to enable this modification. Last PrimeSite SW release supporting frequency hopping will be DF5.0.

12.2
10.2 7.95 7.95

7.4
6.7

7.4
6.7

5.9
5.15

5.9
5.15

4.75

4.75

Nokia InSite BTS:


Nokia
Nokia's

InSite BTS will not support AMR


MetroSite and UltraSite will have full AMR support.

Nokia MetroSite and UltraSite BTS:

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Nokia AMR Parameters

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Link Adaptation Related Parameters

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Steps to configure Link Adaptation


First, selection of the Active Codec Set (codecs to be used during the calls for both FR and HR). FRC & HRC parameter

Then, selection of CIR thresholds to change codecs and hysteresis


Selection of the initial codec to be used at the beginning of the allocation (ICMI- FRI & FRS for FR and ICMI-HRI and HRS for HR) Selection of standard Link Adaptation (every 40 ms) or Slow Link Adaptation (every 480ms) (SLA)

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Link Adaptation Related Parameters


BTS level parameters
Q3 NAME amrConfigurationFr: codecModeSet amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis1 amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis2 amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis3 amrConfigurationFr: initCodecMode amrConfigurationFr: startMode amrConfigurationFr: threshold1 amrConfigurationFr: threshold2 amrConfigurationFr: threshold3 amrConfigurationHr: codecModeSet amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis1 amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis2 amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis3 amrConfigurationHr: initCodecMode amrConfigurationHr: startMode amrConfigurationHr: threshold1 amrConfigurationHr: threshold2 amrConfigurationHr: threshold3 Acronymn FRC FRH1 FRH2 FRH3 ICMI(FRI) FRS FRT1 FRT2 FRT3 HRC HRH1 HRH2 HRH3 ICMI(HRI) HRS HRT1 HRT2 HRT3 RANGE UNIT MML EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ 0-31.5dB EQ 0-31.5dB EQ 0-31.5dB EQ kbit/s EQ 0-7.5dB EQ 0-7.5dB EQ 0-7.5dB EQ EQ EQ dB EQ dB EQ dB EQ kbit/s 0-7.5dB 0-7.5dB 0-7.5dB MML Default 12.2 7.40 5.9 4.75 2 2 2 0 0 8 14 22 7.40 5.90 4.75 2 2 0 0 0 22 28 0

0 0 0 0

... 15 ... 15 ... 15 / 1 00, 01, 10,11 0 ... 63 0 ... 63 0 ... 63 0 0 0 0 ... 15 ... 15 ... 15 / 1 00, 01, 10,11 0 ... 63 0 ... 63 0 ... 63

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Definition of the Active Codec Set


amrConfigurationFr: codecModeSet (FRC) & amrConfigurationHr: codecModeSet (HRC)
Codecs supported in different BTS models BTS 2nd Generat Talk Family Metro & Ultrasite AMR FR AFS 475, AFS590, AFS740, AFS122 All codecs AMR-HR AHS475, AHS 590, AHS 740 All exepct AHS790

Maximum of 4 codecs can be included in ACS, although it can be less (or even disable) Values Range: 0..240 (0 or 1-4 values Range: 0..30 (0 or 1-4 values from
from these: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 & 128) 0 (0000 0000) = disabled 1 (0000 0001) = 4.75 kbit/s 2 (0000 0010) = 5.15 kbit/s 4 (0000 0100) = 5.90 kbit/s 8 (0000 1000) = 6.70 kbit/s 16 (0001 0000) = 7.40 kbit/s 32 (0010 0000) = 7.95 kbit/s 64 (0100 0000) = 10.2 kbit/s 128 (1000 0000) = 12.2 kbit/s Example (default) 1001 0101 = (4.75, 5.90, 7.40 & 12.2) these: 1, 2, 4, 8 & 16) 0 (0000 0000) 1 (0000 0001) 2 (0000 0010) 4 (0000 0100) 8 (0000 1000) 16 (0001 0000) = disabled = 4.75 kbit/s = 5.15 kbit/s = 5.90 kbit/s = 6.70 kbit/s = 7.40 kbit/s

0001 0101 = (4.75, 5.90 & 7.40)

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Codec mode adaptation: Threshold and hysteresis


Both Threshold and hysteresis has 0.5 dB step One threshold to go from one codec to the closest higher or lower one FR Example:

AFS122, C/I < 11 dB, AFS122 AFS740

AFS740, C/I > 11+1 dB, AFS740 AFS122

Codec Mode (kbit/s) 4 (12.2)

Threshold (C/I) TH3 (11 dB)

Hysteresis (C/I)

3 (7.4)
2 (5.9) 1 (4.75)

TH2 (7 dB)
TH1 (4 dB)

H3 (1 dB)
H2 (1 dB) H1 (1 dB)

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Codec mode adaptation: Threshold and hysteresis


Codec mode

FR12.2 (codec 4)

1dB FRH3

FR7.4 (codec 3)

1dB FRH2

FR5.9 (codec 2) 1dB FRH1 FR4.75 (codec 1)

4dB FRT1

5dB

7dB FRT2

8dB

11dB FRT3

12dB

C/I estimation

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Initial Codec Mode Indicator


Separate parameters for FR and HR:

FR: amrConfigurationFr: initCodecMode (ICMI) (FRI)


Initial codec mode for call set-up and HO 0 = Initial codec mode is defined by the implicit rule provided in GSM 05.09 1 = Initial codec mode is defined by amrConfigurationFr: startMode (FRS)
01: Codec mode 2 10: Codec mode 3

00: Codec mode 1 (most robust within ACS)

HR:

11: Codec mode 4

amrConfigurationHr: initCodecMode (ICMI) (HRI)


amrConfHrStartMode (HRS)

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Slow Link Adaptation


slowAmrLaEnabled (SAL): Y/N

enable slow link adaptation. This is a proprietary algorithm where codec mode changes happen every SACCH period (480ms) instead of as fast as 40ms.

BSC level parameter

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Report 245: Distribution of call samples UL/DL by FER classes

ND 245

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Channel allocation Parameters (Call set-up and Packing/Unpacking)

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IAC (Initial AMR Channel Rate)


initAmrChannelRate (IAC): 1 = Any rate. Channel type allocation depends on further network parameters/settings 2 = AMR FR AMR FR is preferred over AMR HR and allocated despite of the values of the currently used information for channel allocation IAC=2 overrides tchRateInternalHo (HRI) parameter

Q3 NAME initAmrChannelRate

Acronymn IAC 1

RANGE / 2

UNIT MML EE

MML Default 1

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Packing/Unpacking Parameters and Channel Rate allocation


BSC level parameters

Q3 NAME btsLoadDepTC HRate btsLoadDepTC HRate

Acronymn HRL HRU 0 0

RANGE ... ... 100 100

UNIT % %

MML E E E E

MML Default 100 0

BTS level parameters


Q3 NAME btsS pLoadDepTC HRate (BTSlevel) btsS pLoadDepTC HRate (BTSlevel) amrHandoverFr amrHandoverHr Acronymn FRL FRU IHRF IHRH 0 0 0 0 RANGE ... ... ... ... 100 100 7 7 UNIT % % MML E Q E Q E H E H MML Default 100 0 0 4

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Channel allocation: Call set-up and handovers


btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL) and btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU) are considered in call set-up and handovers only when IAC=1 HR is to be assigned if free resources go below HRL FR is to be assigned if free resources go above HRU In channel allocation for Handovers, there is an additional parameter that can be used to set further control tchRateInternalHo (HRI) is used to control the speech and channel type changes in handover when IAC=1 If set HRI=1, channel type and speech codec used in source BTS are primarily allocated in the target BTS

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Channel mode adaptation: Packing


1. New channel allocation

Case 1.

2. BSC make Intra-cell HO (Packing TS4&5 calls into HR calls TS7) Free FR resources increased by one

1. New channel allocation

Case 2.
TCHF MBCCHC TCHD

2. Packing TS4 FR call into HR call TS7 Free FR resources increased by one

FR call HR call

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Channel mode adaptation: Packing


1. New channel allocation

Case 3.

2. No packing (due to lack of TCHD resources)

BSC performs HOs for FR AMR calls, whose quality is above the amrHandoverFr (IHRF) and which use the least robust codec mode.

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Channel mode adaptation: Unpacking

Case 4.

1. Unpacking due to Rx qual

2. Packing due to load

Unpacking of HR AMR calls to FR AMR calls is triggered when the quality of a HR AMR call degrades below the amrHandoverHr (IHRH). Cell load does not have an effect

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Packing/Unpacking RXQUAL Threshold Selection from Field Tests

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RXQUAL vs. aveFER in 2sec PERIODs


Averaged RXQual distribution in ROUTE 1
50% 45% 40% 35%

(TEMS) Average FER in 2sec periods AMR-HR AHS4.75-AHS7.4 16dB Thr & 3dB Hyst
25

20
30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% RXQUAL 0 RXQUAL 1 RXQUAL 2 RXQUAL 4 RXQUAL 4 RXQUAL 5 RXQUAL 6 RXQUAL 7

Average FER

15 10

0 RXQUAL 1 RXQUAL 2 RXQUAL 4 RXQUAL 4 RXQUAL 5 RXQUAL 6 RXQUAL 7

Averaged RXQual distribution in ROUTE 1


Average FER in 2sec

According to the average FER, RXQual 5 can be considered still as providing enough quality to serve AMR-HR. Also note that in such conditions, most robust HR codecs will be used but for high capacity networks this would be enough

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Correlation RXQUAL vs FER in 2sec PERIOD With RXQual 5, still AMR-HR can provide enough quality to serve traffic if
high capacity numbers are required.
(TEMS) Distribution of FER in 2sec per RXQUAL class for AMR-HR AHS4.75-AHS7.4 16dB and 3dB Hyst 100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% .00%
RXQ ual 5 RXQ ual 6 ual 7

RXQual 1 RXQual 2 RXQual 3 RXQual 4 RXQual 5 RXQual 6 RXQual 7

% >0

R FE

ER %F R >2 FE % R >4 FE 8% >

RXQ

RXQ ual 2

RXQ ual 3

RXQ ual 4

2% >1

R FE

RXQ

ual 1

10% of samples having worse than 4% FER WITH RXQual 5

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TEMS Snapshot
In an environment around RXQual 5, less than 2 frames erased per SACCH period. AMR-HR with RXQual 5 could be used when trying to have agressive HR penetration

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Packing/Unpacking threshold selection


From the performance of AMR-HR it can be concluded that RXQual 4 might be a safe value for packing from FR to HR in order to ensure proper quality of AMR-HR. If more agressive deployment is required and more penetration of AMR-HR is aimed at, then RXQual 5 threshold can be used still safely. (NOTE: In the current implementation of BSS10.5 calls pack when RXQual is < IHRF and unpack when RXQual is >= IHRH. Additionally, for packing, the codec used in FR has to be the least robust one.)

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Channel mode adaptation: Additional notes


HRL and HRU are set on BSC level but load evaluation is based on working FR TSLs for CS in individual BTS. Lower limit for FR TCH resources (FRL) and upper limit for FR TCH resources (FRU) are BTS specific parameters. They have priority over (HRL) and (HRU) The feature is disable when set HRU <= HRL or FRU <= FRL Requirements for maximum usage of HR HRU = 99 HRL = 98 IAC = 1 IHRF = 3, RX Qual 0, 1, 2, 3 are required for packing IHRH = 4, Rx Qual 4, 5, 6, 7 triggers unpacking TRIH = 0, no restriction, channel rate selection based on HRI

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Other parameters affecting channel allocation in HOs

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amrConflnHandover
amrConflnHandover 1 = the currently used multirate configuration is preferred 2 = the multirate configuration of target BTS is preferred amrSetGradesEnabl Y/N Y = downgrades and upgrades are applied N = downgrades and upgrades are not applied If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are the same, these 2 parameters has no impact.

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amrConflnHandover
If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are difference (e.g. Talk family BTS supports less codecs than UltraSite and MetroSite), the multirate configuration can be aligned before or after HO. Recommendation amrConflnHandover = 2 amrSetGradesEnabl = Y Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on source side before HO if target BTS support less codec (downgraded, UltraSite Talk family) Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on target side after HO if target BTS support more codec (upgrade, Talk family UltraSite) In order to make it possible to connect unidirectional speech path on target side, the multirate configuration on both sides should be the same (reduce muting period during HO).

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Report 248: Codec set modification failure ratio

ND 248

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TCH in handover (HRI)


With this parameter you define the traffic channel allocation during BSS internal or external handovers. The parameter controls the target cell selection and the TCH channel rate and speech codec determination in traffic channel allocation.

HRI = 1 Call serving type TCH and speech codec are preferred. The call serving type of speech codec inside the call serving
type of TCH can change.

HRI = 2 Call serving type of TCH and speech codec are preferred for speech Channel rate change is possible for data if the radio interface data rate allows it

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TCH rate intra-cell handover (HRI)


HRI = 3 Channel rate and speech codec changes are totally denied

RHI = 4 Preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred speech codec have to be primarily allocated RHI = 5 ... TCH has to be primarily allocated from the best BTS of thehandover candidate list.

Recommended value = 1 (default) OR 4

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TCH rate intra-cell handover (TRIH)


With this parameter you control the TCH channel rate determination in TCH allocation and the TCH speech codec to be allocated during internal intra-cell handover. TRIH = 0 No Constraints. Follows HRI settings TRIH = 1 Call serving type TCH and speech codec are preferred
Preferred over different type TCH and speech codec

Only when same type TCH and speech codec is not avaialble

TRIH = 2 Call serving type of TCH and speech codec are preferred for speech Channel rate change is possible for data if the radio interface data rate allows it

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TCH rate intra-cell handover (TRIH)


TRIH = 3 Channel rate and speech codec changes are totally denied
Not allowed

Allowed

TRIH = 4 Preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred speech codec have to be primarily allocated
Recommended value = 0 (default)

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AMR specific Hand-Over and Power Control Parameters

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Power Control Parameters

Separate thresholds for AMR-HR

Different PC thresholds for AMR than for EFR


AMR allows to use more aggressive PC thresholds (1-2 classes lower)

Same voting used as for EFR (px/nx)

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AMR Parameters
AMR PC Control Thresholds - BTS level parameters
Q3 NAME amrPowerC ontrolFr * lower threshold dl Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolHr * lower threshold dl Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolFr * lower threshold ul Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolHr * lower threshold ul Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolFr * upper threshold dl Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolHr * upper threshold dl Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolFr * upper threshold ul Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolHr * upper threshold ul Rx Qual* Acronymn LDRF LDRH LURF LURH UDRF UDRH UURF UURH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RANGE ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 UNIT MML E U E U E U E U E U E U E U E U MML Default 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0

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Impact at system level of Power Control Parameters


EFR vs AMR

Performance vs. PC settings


4.5%

4.5% 4.0%

4.0%

100% EFR PC=2/3

% Bad Quality Samples

3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0%

100% AMR
T CH fE R > 4%

3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0%

140 % 100% AMR PC=3/5


5% 10% 15% 20% EFL( %) 25% 30% 35%

0.5% 0.0% PC=5/3 PC=5/4 PC=4/3 PC=3/2 PC se ttings TCH FER > 4% % ended call avg estimated MOS < 3.5
0.5% 0.0%

Codec MA

EFR

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RXQual Handover Parameters


Separate thresholds for AMR-FR than for AMR-HR Different HO thresholds for AMR than for EFR

Same px/nx values used for both AMR and EFR


AMR allows to use more aggressive HO thresholds (1-2 classes lower)

BTS level parameters


Q3 NAME Threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR Threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR Threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR Threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR Acronymn QDRH QDRF QURF QURH 0 0 0 0 RANGE ... ... ... ... 7 7 7 7 UNIT MML E H E H E H E H MML Default 4 4 4 4

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AMR Thresholds Overview

6 Qual_reason_HO for FR
5 4 unpack HR -> FR 3 Qual_reason_HO for HR; 2 pack FR -> HR 1 0 LDRH, LURH LDRF, LURF UDRH, UURH UDRF, UURF

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Handover Prioritization there are cells with When


In order to facilitate the continuation of an AMR call HO target cell list is sorted so that lightly-loaded AMR-capable cells are more attractive. AMR-capable cells can be defined by the AMR target cell of direct access to desired layer (DADLA) Prioritized by BTS Load Threshold (BLT) Prioritization only used for an on-going AMR-mode call

Call set-up

AMR and without AMR

In AMR environment, DADL/B is used to handover AMR calls from non-AMR-capable cell to co-located AMR capable cells during call set-up phase.
AMR cells which load below BTSLoadThreshold and meet hoMarginPBGT are prioritised for AMR call.

Handover

1) DADL/B used to direct AMR mobiles to AMR capable cells

2) Prioritisation of AMR capable cells in handovers

No-AMR capable
2nd gen. BTS

SDCCH

AMR capable UltraSite (co-located)

TCH

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Relation with other HOs: Priority


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Interference (UL or DL) NonBCCHLayerExit Uplink quality Downlink quality AMR unpacking due to UL level HO threshold and UL quality (unpacking is started instead of UL level based HO if both, UL level and UL quality for unpacking triggers) 6. Uplink level 7. AMR unpacking due to DL level HO threshold and DL quality (unpacking is started instead of DL level based HO if both, DL level and DL quality for unpacking triggers)
8. Downlink level 9. MS-BS Distance 10. Turn-around-corner MS

11. Rapid field drop


12. Fast/Slow moving MS 13. Better cell (Power budget HO or Umbrella HO) 14. Load based HO in Common BCCH from BCCH/non-BCCH layer to nonBCCH layer 15. AMR packing 16. AMR unpacking

* Priority applies when criteria are fulfilled at the same time


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Nokia AMR KPI

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AMR Performance Monitoring


AMR brings new speech codecs and channel encoders into air interface Speech Codecs impact would be reflected in the speech quality perceived Channel encoding enhancement is translated into better error correction capabilities (lower FER for same RawBER), which, in turn, enhances the speech quality Traditional performance monitoring indicators based on RXQUAL distribution, or Drop Call Rate, etc. does not reflect clearly the perceived speech quality by the end user. New methods to monitor the performance of AMR closer to speech quality perceived by the user. 2 Main indicators are proposed: FER and O-MOS (Objective MOS). O-MOS is not simple to measure (BSS 10.5) FER is available in UL, but DL FER will be reported when R99 MS come. In the meantime DL FER is just estimated from RXQUAL values RXQUAL

FER
Company Confidential

O-MOS

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AMR KPIs
RXQUAL: Reported raw bit error rate RXLEV: Reported received power

FER: Frame Erasure Rate (after decoding)


Codec distribution MOS - speech quality FER per codec Call Drop Rate and other standard benchmarking measures

Network collected measurements:

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MOS & FER


Example of relation MOS-FER: 4-5% FER seems to be acceptable for almost all codecs
M OS
0 .5 0

Pe rc e ive d qua lity (M OS) de gra da tion a s a func tion of the FER (FR Te s ts in Cle a n Spe e c h)

M OS
0 .5 0

P e rc e ive d qua lity (M OS ) de gra da tion a s a func tion of the FER (HR Te s ts in Cle a n S pe e c h)

0 .0 0

GSM 06.75

0 .0 0

- 0 .5 0

- 0 .5 0

- 1 .0 0

- 1 .0 0 7 .9 5 H R 7 .4 H R 6 .7 H R - 2 .0 0 5 .9 H R 5 .1 5 H R - 2 .5 0 4 .7 5 H R

- 1 .5 0 1 2 .2 1 0 .2 - 2 .0 0 7 .9 5 F R 7 .4 F R 6 .7 F R 5 .9 F R - 2 .5 0 5 .1 5 F R 4 .7 5 F R

- 1 .5 0

F ER
- 3 .0 0 0 .0 0 1 % 0 .0 1 0 % 0 .1 0 0 % 1 .0 0 0 % 1 0 .0 0 0 % 1 0 0 .0 0 0 %

F ER
- 3 .0 0 0 .0 0 1 % 0 .0 1 0 % 0 .1 0 0 % 1 .0 0 0 % 1 0 .0 0 0 % 1 0 0 .0 0 0 %

MOS degradation for FR

MOS degradation for HR

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RXLEV and Power Budget HO parameters identical for AMR and EFR AMR call would handover at the same point as an EFR call. Separate RXQUAL threshold settings for AMR Default set to worse values than EFR. (e.g. EFR =4, AMR = 5) With these default settings AMR calls would be expected to have fewer HO due to quality No difference in RXQUAL measurement method between EFR and AMR EFR call and AMR call in identical location should show identical RXQUAL measurements Packing/Unpacking Unpacking from HR to FR is always based on RX quality In congested cell with no available TS for unpacking, Inter-cell HO required based on RXQUAL.

AMR Effect on HO_QUALITY

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AMR Effect on HO_Failures


Improved robustness in AMR over EFR AMR better able to handle poor radio conditions - low RXLEV, poor RXQUAL, low C/I Separate RXQUAL HO threshold for AMR Effort to squeeze more performance from AMR could have negative impact in case parameters are not properly set up and/or traffic is low Packing/Unpacking Congestion could cause negative impact to HO_Fail No available TS for unpacking within cell. Inter-cell HO required Conclusion Optimization of separate AMR parameters is important to ensure no negative impact to HO_Failures. Different environments will need different parameter settings to optimise the performance.

Unpacking algorithm under congested conditions may negatively impact HO_Failures

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AMR Effect on DCR


The AMR feature itself will not impact the individual connections DCR, but it will affect the overall system DCR since the interference generated in the network is lower due to the AMR power control settings. Radio Link Timeout can be adapted to AMR in order for dropped calls to maintain the same correlation with voice quality degradation as with EFR (RLT value could be moved from 20 to 36, for instance)

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AMR Effect on BH_Congestion


Use of AMR HR will decrease BH_Cong Special dimmensioning techniques are required: % of HR capable terminals -> system level Load in busy hour (C/I distribution) determines % of HR terminals which can use HR -> cluster level HR Dimmensioning tables determine the traffic (Erlangs) to be carried for a certain TSL configuration, a certain grade of service and % of HR traffic -> cell level

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Network Doctor Reports related to AMR


REPORTS:

Report 246: Percentage of call time using non-AMR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR UL/DL RxQual classes for non-AMR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR UL/DL FER classes for non-AMR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR
Report 244: Distribution of call samples UL/DL by codecs and RxQual classes In FLA the codec mode reported is the last used in 480ms measurement interval (statistics will be fully accurate for SLA) Report 245: Distribution of call samples UL/DL by FER classes

ND 246

ND 244

ND 245

Report 247: Call Failure rate per codec type


ND 447

Report 248: Codec set modification failure ratio

ND 248

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Nokia AMR Planning Aspects

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Link Level Performance of AMR

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C/I vs. FER performance, AMR FR


Frame Error Rates (FER) for ARM, EFR and FR Codecs on Different C/I conditions (FR -Channel)
C/I [dB] 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0.00%

2.00% GSM EFR GSM FR AMR 12.2 kbit/s AMR 10.2 kbit/s AMR 7.95 kbit/s AMR 7.4 kbit/s AMR 6.7 kbit/s AMR 5.9 kbit/s AMR 5.15 kbit/s AMR 4.75 kbit/s GSM HR

4.00%

5-6dB
6.00% 8.00%

10.00%

TU3-iFH

12.00%

14.00%

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FER [%]

C/I vs. FER performance, AMR HR


Frame Error Rates (FER) for ARM HR Codecs on Different C/I conditions (HR -Channel)
C/I [dB] 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Better Performance than GSM-HR and 0.00% GSM-FR (previous 2.00% slide)
4.00% GSM HR 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% AMR 7.95 kbit/s

FER [%]

AMR 7.4 kbit/s AMR 6.7 kbit/s AMR 5.9 kbit/s AMR 5.15 kbit/s AMR 4.75 kbit/s

TU3-iFH

12.00% 14.00%

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UL lab results for fixed codecs and LA


TU50 non hopping, UL: Speech Quality
4.0000 3.5000 3.0000 2.5000
PESQ
PESQ
4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0

TU3 RH5, UL: Speech Quality


4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5

TU3 non hopping, UL: Speech Quality

2.0000 1.5000 1.0000 0.5000 0.0000 0 2 4 6

Note that only for the 1.5 case of TU3-rfh5 the real EFR codec has been used1.0 to assess PESQ-MOS and0.5 FER. For other cases, it 0.0 0 has been only AFS12.2
8 CIR(dB) AFS475(1.A.1), PESQ AFS590(1.A.7), PESQ AFS122(1.A.2), PESQ LAdef(1.A.4),PESQ AFS740(1.A.3), PESQ LAopt2(1.A.6) 10 12 14 16

PESQ

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

Speech Quality (PESQ-MOS)


2 4 6 8 CIR(dB) AFS475(1.C.1), PESQ AFS590(1.C.7), PESQ EFR(1.C.8) AFS122(1.C.2), PESQ LAdef(1.C.4),PESQ AFS740(1.C.3), PESQ LAopt1(1.C.5),PESQ 10 12 14 16

0.0 0 2 4 6 8 CIR(dB) AFS475(1.B.1), PESQ AFS590(1.B.7), PESQ AFS122(1.B.2), PESQ LAdef(1.B.4),PESQ AFS740(1.B.3), PESQ LAopt2(1.B.6),PESQ 10 12 14 16

TU50 non hopping, UL: FER(%)


100.00%
100.00%

TU3 RH5, UL ( lab measurements)


100.00%

TU3 non hopping, UL: FER(%)

10.00%

10.00%

10.00%

FER(%)

FER(%)

1.00%

1.00%

FER(%)

1.00%

0.10%

0.10%

0.10%

FER
0.01% 0 2 4 6 8 CIR(dB)
AFS475(1.A.1) AFS590(1.A.7) AFS122(1.A.2) LAopt1(1.A.5) AFS740(1.A.3) LAopt2(1.C.6) AFS475(1.C.1) Ldef(1.C.4) AFS122(1.C.2) LAopt1(1.C.5) 0.01% 0.01% 0 2 4 6 8 CIR(dB) AFS740(1.C.3) EFR AFS590(1.C.7) AFS475(1.B.1) AFS590(1.B.7) 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 CIR(dB) AFS122(1.B.2) Ldef(1.B.4) AFS740(1.B.3) LAopt2(1.B.6) 10 12 14 16

10

12

14

16

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Comparison UL lab results vs. Simulations


TU50 non hopping, UL: FER(%)
100.00%
100.00%

TU3 RH5, UL ( lab measurements)


100.00%

TU3 non hopping, UL: FER(%)

10.00%

10.00%

10.00%

FER(%)

FER(%)

1.00%

1.00%

FER(%)

1.00%

0.10%

0.10%

0.10%

Lab Measurements
0.01% 0 2 4 6 8 CIR(dB)
AFS475(1.A.1) AFS590(1.A.7) AFS122(1.A.2) LAopt1(1.A.5) AFS740(1.A.3) LAopt2(1.C.6) AFS475(1.C.1) Ldef(1.C.4) AFS122(1.C.2) LAopt1(1.C.5) 0.01% 0.01% 0 2 4 6 8 CIR(dB) AFS740(1.C.3) EFR AFS590(1.C.7) AFS475(1.B.1) AFS590(1.B.7) 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 CIR(dB) AFS122(1.B.2) Ldef(1.B.4) AFS740(1.B.3) LAopt2(1.B.6) 10 12 14 16

10

12

14

16

TU50 no-hop, DL ( Simulations)


100.00%

TU3 RH5, DL ( Simulations)


100.00%
100.000%

TU3 no-hop, DL ( Simulations)

10.00%

10.00%

10.000%

TCH FER

TCH FER

1.00%

1.00%

0.10%

0.10%

Simulations
0.01%

0.01%

C/I [dB]

10

15

C/I [dB]

10

15

TCH FER

1.000%

0.100%

0.010%

0 AFS4.75

C/I [dB]
AFS5.90

10 AFS7.40 AFS12.2

15

AFS4.75

AFS5.90

AFS7.40

AFS12.2

fs475_RH5

fs590_RH5

fs740_RH5

fs122_RH5

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Coverage Enhancement

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AMR Coverage Improvement (link budget)


AMR 12.2 Uplink Transmitter TX power1 Combiner losses Cable and connector losses Body loss TX antenna gain Receiver: Antenna gain Body losses2 Link: SNR requirement Receiver sensitivity Max. allowed path loss Fading marging Range [km] 4) Estimated performance for 1% FER in TU3 multipath channel with frequency hopping
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AMR 5.15 Downlink Uplink Downlink

30 dBm 0 0 3 dB 0 dBi

45 dBm 3.4 dB 2 dB 0 15 dBi

30 dBm 0 0 3 dB 0 dBi

45 dBm 3.4 dB 2 dB 0 15 dBi

15 dBi 0 dB

0 dBi 3 dB

15 dBi 0 dB

0 dBi 3 dB

9 dB4 -107.4 149.4 7.4

9 dB4 -103.4 154 7.4

4 dB -112.4 155.4 7.4

4 dB -106.4 159 7.4

Company Confidential

AMR FR: DL TU50 non-hopping MOS & FER


MOS/FER vs C/I TU50 NO HOP DL
4 16

3.5

14

12

2.5
MOS

~6 dB

10 EFR MOS
FER

AMR FR MOS 12.2 FER AMR FR FER

1.5

0.5

~6 dB
0 2 4 6 8 10 C/I 12 14 16 18 0

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AMR FR & HR: DL TU3 FH5 MOS & FER


MOS/FER vs C/I TU3 FH5 DL
4 50 45 40 3 35

3.5

~4 dB
2.5
MOS

30
FER

EFR MOS AMR FR MOS AMR HR MOS 12.2 FER AMR FR FER AMR HR FER

25 20 15

1.5

~4 dB
10

0.5

~1 dB
5 0 2 4 6 8 10 C/I 12 14 16 18

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Field Tests:Sentivitiy Enhancement of AMR


AMR EFR

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

RXLEV -110 to -108 RXLEV -108 to -106 RXLEV -106 to -104 RXLEV -104 to -102 RXLEV -102 to -100 RXLEV -100 to -98 RXLEV -98 to -96 RXLEV -96 to -47

o -47 -96 t 6 XLE V to -9 R V -98 8 to -9 RXLE 100 0 EV o -10 RXL 102 t 2 EV o -10 RXL 104 t 4 EV o -10 RXL 106 t 6 EV o -10 RXL 108 t EV 108 RXL 0 to V -11 RXLE

o -47 -96 t -96 X 10LE V R 98 to EV L o -98 0 RX 100 t 0 EV o -10 RXL 102 t FE 2 EV FE o -10 R RXL 104 t 10 FE R 4 EV 12 0% RXL o -10 FE R 106 t -1 86 FE R EV 00 12 o -10 RXL 5R FE 108 t % % 8% 4EV R FE 108 RXL 5% 20 to R FE 4% V -11 0R RXLE 2% <= 0

20

FE R

FE R <= 0

FE R 02%

FE R 24%

FE R 45%

FE R 58%

10 12 0% -1 800 12 % %

FE R

FE R

The higher robustness of AMR is clear, finding similar behaviour of AMR in [ 104,-106] dBm as with EFR in the margin [100,102], so, at least around 4dB coverage gain.
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Dimensioning with AMR-HR

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Dimensioning with AMR-HR


Erlang B table can not be used for dimensioning when AMR-HR penetration is foreseen That is, if all TSL are configured as DR, then the maximum traffic that can be served with less than 2% GoS is not the one provided by ErlangB table when doubling the amount of channels. The reason is because now AMR-HR is not used in all TSL but only in those that has good radio conditions. New tables have been produced taking the percentage of traffic that could be handled by HR. These tables have been produced using a mathematical model based on Markov processes (see reference at the end of the material).

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Example of reduction of TSL required with AMR-HR


Saving Factor = % of resources (TS) saved by using AMR-HR
2% GoS # Time Slots 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 24 32 40 48 56 0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 10% 0.2% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.6% 2.0% 2.2% 2.5% 2.8% 3.0% 3.1% 3.2% 3.3% 3.4% 3.5% 3.6% 4.0% 4.2% 4.2% 4.2% 4.2% % of users with good conditions to use AMR-HR (for example C/I > 12dB) 20% 0.5% 2.5% 3.2% 4.1% 4.8% 5.4% 5.9% 6.4% 6.7% 7.0% 7.3% 7.4% 7.6% 7.7% 7.9% 8.0% 8.6% 8.8% 8.9% 9.0% 8.9% 30% 1.2% 5.2% 6.6% 8.1% 9.2% 10.0% 10.6% 11.1% 11.5% 11.8% 12.1% 12.3% 12.5% 12.6% 12.8% 12.9% 13.6% 13.8% 13.9% 14.0% 14.0% 40% 2.3% 9.2% 11.1% 12.9% 14.3% 15.2% 15.9% 16.4% 16.7% 17.1% 17.3% 17.5% 17.7% 17.9% 18.0% 18.1% 18.7% 18.9% 19.1% 19.2% 19.3% 50% 3.7% 13.9% 16.2% 18.3% 19.6% 20.5% 21.1% 21.6% 21.9% 22.2% 22.5% 22.7% 22.9% 23.0% 23.1% 23.2% 23.8% 24.0% 24.2% 24.3% 24.3% 60% 6.5% 19.7% 22.1% 24.1% 25.3% 26.1% 26.6% 27.0% 27.3% 27.6% 27.8% 28.0% 28.1% 28.2% 28.4% 28.4% 28.9% 29.1% 29.3% 29.4% 29.5% 70% 7.5% 25.7% 28.3% 30.0% 31.0% 31.7% 32.1% 32.5% 32.7% 33.0% 33.1% 33.3% 33.4% 33.5% 33.6% 33.7% 34.1% 34.3% 34.4% 34.5% 34.6% 80% 17.2% 32.5% 35.3% 36.5% 37.2% 37.6% 38.0% 38.2% 38.4% 38.5% 38.7% 38.8% 38.9% 38.9% 39.0% 39.1% 39.4% 39.5% 39.6% 39.7% 39.8% 90% 34.0% 41.4% 42.6% 43.2% 43.6% 43.8% 44.0% 44.1% 44.2% 44.3% 44.3% 44.4% 44.4% 44.5% 44.5% 44.5% 44.7% 44.8% 44.9% 44.9% 44.9% 100% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0% 50.0%

Saving in resources

By using AMR-HR, when 70% of the network has conditions for AMRHR, we can save 34% if 24 AMR-HR capable TS are available (we would need 36 TS with only FR to serve the same traffic)

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AMR-HR DIMENSIONING ISSUES


Erlang B table can not be used for dimensioning when AMR-HR penetration is foreseen this table displays the traffic that can be served for different number of Time Slots (TS) available and different penetrations of AMR-HR for example, 70% HR penetration the number of TS required to serve 16.7 Erlangs is just 16, while for pure AMR-FR it would require around 24 time slots to serve the same traffic (around 33% saving in resources)
2% GoS # Time Slots 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 24 32 40 48 56
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0% 0.0204 0.2236 0.6024 1.0927 1.6578 2.2769 2.9367 3.6287 4.3468 5.0864 5.8443 6.6178 7.405 8.204 9.0137 9.8328 16.636 23.729 30.998 38.387 45.863

10% 0.02 0.23 0.62 1.12 1.71 2.35 3.04 3.77 4.53 5.31 6.11 6.92 7.75 8.60 9.45 10.32 17.50 24.98 32.62 40.36 48.16

20% 0.02 0.24 0.65 1.18 1.81 2.50 3.24 4.01 4.82 5.65 6.51 7.37 8.25 9.15 10.06 10.98 18.60 26.52 34.61 42.80 51.05

% of users with good conditions to use AMR-HR 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.25 0.28 0.32 0.37 0.45 0.70 0.77 0.87 1.01 1.19 1.28 1.42 1.59 1.82 2.10 1.96 2.17 2.42 2.73 3.11 2.71 2.99 3.31 3.71 4.19 3.51 3.85 4.25 4.74 5.32 4.35 4.76 5.24 5.81 6.50 5.21 5.70 6.25 6.92 7.71 6.11 6.66 7.29 8.05 8.94 7.02 7.64 8.35 9.20 10.20 7.94 8.65 9.43 10.37 11.48 8.89 9.66 10.53 11.56 12.77 9.85 10.69 11.64 12.76 14.08 10.82 11.74 12.77 13.98 15.41 11.81 12.79 13.90 15.21 16.74 19.94 21.52 23.27 25.33 27.72 28.37 30.52 32.93 35.75 39.04 36.98 39.74 42.82 46.41 50.59 45.71 49.08 52.84 57.20 62.28 54.51 58.52 62.96 68.09 74.07

80% 0.06 0.58 1.44 2.47 3.60 4.80 6.06 7.36 8.69 10.05 11.44 12.84 14.26 15.70 17.15 18.61 30.62 42.99 55.58 68.32 81.16

90% 0.11 0.79 1.80 2.97 4.25 5.60 7.00 8.45 9.93 11.45 12.98 14.53 16.11 17.69 19.29 20.91 34.13 47.73 61.55 75.52 89.60

100% 0.22 1.09 2.28 3.63 5.08 6.61 8.20 9.83 11.49 13.18 14.90 16.63 18.38 20.15 21.93 23.73 38.39 53.43 68.69 84.10 99.62

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Introducing AMR HR (e.g. 2 TRX Cell)


Phase 0: Existing EFR FR: 16 Ch/Cell, 13 Voice Ch/Cell, Max. 7 Erl/Cell*
TS L TRX1 TRX2 0 S F 1 S F 2 F F 3 F F 4 F F 5 F F 6 F F 7 G F

Phase 1: Adding 1 DR TSL per TRX: 18 Ch/Cell, 15 Voice Ch/Cell, Max. 9 Erl/Cell*
TS L TR X1 TR X2 0 S D 1 S F 2 D F 3 F F 4 F F 5 F F 6 F F 7 G F

Phase 2: All Voice TSL are DR: 29 Ch/Cell, 26 Voice Ch/Cell, Max. 18 Erl/Cell*
TS L TRX1 TRX2 0 S D 1 S D 2 D D 3 D D 4 D D 5 D D 6 D D 7 G D

Phase 2 essentially DOUBLES the voice capacity compared to phase 0. Signaling load between BSC and MSC has to be considered as well
* at 2% Blocking rate, using Erlang B considering HR is used without Radio Link Constrains
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Benfit of BSC Channel Capacity Increase*


BSC Channel Capacity Increased from 4096 to 8192 Channels
Additional Investm ent (AMR HR) Aditional Investment (AMR-HR)

HW & SW Investment to increase Capacity


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Phase 2 Phase 1 Phase 3 Phase 2

HW & SW Investment to increase Capacity

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

AMR Market Licence AMR Market Licence


BSC BSC

> 50% less


AMR HR (Regular BSC) AMR HR (BSC w/Channel Capacity Enhancement)
AMR HR (BSC w / Channel Capacity enhancement) AMR HR (Regular BSC)

40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Phase Phase21 Phase Phase 32

Additional Aditional Investm ent (AMR HR)(AMR-HR) with Investment - w ith BSc Channel Increase

BSC Channel Increase


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20%

AMR Market Licence


AMR Market Licence BSC Ch SW Feature BSC Ch SW Feature BSC

BSC

*Note: Simulation for a market with 30 BSCs

10% 0%

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 2

Phase 3

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System Level Performance of AMR-FR Simulations

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Simulation Scenario
Regular Hexagonal grid with 3-sector sites

Interference Limited Scenario

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Simulation parameters
Simulated network structure: - Number of base stations - Antennas - Intersite distance - Number of TRXs - Frequency Reuse - BCCH TRX Reuse - Frequency spectrum Mobile velocity Call mean hold time Type of frequency hopping DTX factor Power Control AMR codec mode adaptation AMR full-rate modes in use: 25 3-sector BTSs (75 cells) 65 sectorized 1.5 km 4-6 1/1 (FH) 12 - 9 (not included in hop.) 5 MHz (12 hopping freqs) 3 km/h 120s (exp. distribution) Random hopping 0.5 On On 12.2 kbit/s 7.4 kbit/s 5.9 kbit/s 4.75 kbit/s

1 Sample = 2 secs (96 Speech Frames); 1 Bad Quality Sample(BQS) = Sample with FER>4.2% X-axis for hopping plots = EFL = Effective Frequency Load (how much each frequency is on the air) Traffic (E)/(8*#hop.freqs)
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CIR vs FER link level in simulator


TU3, no Hop 100.00%
TU3, RH12

TU3

100.000%

10.00%

10.000%

FER(%)

FER(%)

1.00%

1.000%

0.10%

0.100%

0.01% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 CIR(dB) AFS122, no Hop AFS475, no Hop LA, no Hop

0.010% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 CIR(dB) AFS122, no Hop AFS475, no Hop LA, no Hop

Link Level performance in simulator for non-hopping seems to be quite similar to the one measured in Nokia lab for UL Link Level Performance in simulator for hoppig over 12 frequencies seems to be aligned with Nokia lab results for UL (between performance for TU3 rfh5 and TU50 non-hop)
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Performance of AMR-FR
(100% AMR penetration vs 100% EFR)
BCCH layer (no-hop)
PERFORMANCE OF TRAFFIC CHANNELS OF BCCH FOR EFR AND AMR-FR AND BOTH 9-BCCH AND 12-BCCH REUSES 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 1.0 1.5 2.0 Erlangs per cell in BCCH AMR traffic; 12 BCCH AMR traffic; 9 BCCH EFR traffic; 12 BCCH EFR traffic; 9 BCCH 2.5 3.0
0.5% 0.0% 5% 10% 15% 20% EFL(%) CodecMA EFR 25% 30% 35%

Hopping layer (12 freqs.)


EFR vs AMR

TU3
Quality Samples % Bad TCH fER > 4%

4.5% 4.0%

% Bad Quality Samples

3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0%

140%

AMR with BCCH reuse 9 performs similar to EFR with BCCH reuse 12
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At 2% outage of BQS, AMR allows 140% more traffic than EFR.

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AMR Penetration
EFR vs AMR penetration 4.5% 4.0%

TCH FER > Samples % Bad Quality 4%

3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0% 5% 10% 15% EFL(%) 0 % AMR / 100% EFR 100 % AMR / 0% EFR 25% AMR / 75% EFR Poly. (100 % AMR / 0% EFR) 63% AMR / 37 % EFR 20% 25% 30% 35%

Most of the practical cases there will be mixed AMR and EFR mobiles in the network at the same time Therefore, very tight frequency plan may not be feasible in order to maintain good speech quality with existing EFR calls
AMR capacity gain (%)

160% 140%

Capacity Gain (%) Capacity Gain (%)

TCH FER decreases considerably when AMR penetration increases

120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Increased TCH quality can be turned into capacity by allowing more traffic to the network
About 140% traffic increase is attained with 100% AMR penetration
130 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials

25% AMR

63%AMR AMR penetration

100%AMR

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Effect of AMR LA at network level


From FER point of view, the usage of the most robust codec (AFS475) improves the performance of the network vs LA
FR AMR Codecs FER performance
4.0% 3.5%

However, the gain of AMR LA is that the Speech Quality (SQ) is improved as the codec providing best SQ should be always used
FR AMR Codecs MOS performance
2.5%

% ended calls avg estimated MOS<3

% Bad Quality Samples TCH fER > 4%

3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0%

FER

Hopping layer

2.0%

MOS

Hopping layer

1.5%

1.0%

0.5%

0.0% 0% 5% 10% EFL(%) 15% 20% 25%

5%

10% EFL(%)

15%

20%

25%

AFS122

AFS740

AFS590

AFS475

CodecMA

AFS122

AFS740

AFS590

AFS475

CodecMA

POWER CONTROL OFF IN THESE SIMULATIONS


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Impact of LA Thresholds
th1 th2 th3 C_th1 9 5 2 C_th2 11 7 4 C_th3 13 9 6 C_th4 15 11 8 C_th5 17 13 10

FER CodecMA vs AFS475


0.8% 0.7% 0.6% 0.5%
FER(%)

MOS PERFORMANCE
8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0%

3.86 3.85 3.84 3.83

0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0% C_Th1 C_Th2 C_Th3 THRESHOLD SET % FER (CodecMA) % FER samples > 4.2% C_Th4
% SPEECH FRAME USAGE

3.82 3.81

CODEC USAGE
100% 90%
C_Th5

3.80 3.79 3.78 C_Th1 C_Th2 C_Th3 THRESHOLD SET C_Th4 C_Th5

80% 70%

Average MOS (1)

% ended calls avg MOS < 3.5

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

The higher the thresholds the lower the FER, but the worse the Speech Quality as codecs more robust (4.75, 5.90) are used more often. 132 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials
0%

C_Th1

C_Th2

C_Th3 THRESHOLD SET

C_Th4

C_Th5

% AFS122

%AFS740

% AFS590

% AFS475

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BQC (MOS<3.5)

AVG. MOS

Codec Usage for different loads


Codec usage in 100% AMR case
100% 90% 80%

% codec usage

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

21%
EFL(%)

32%

AFS475

AFS590

AFS740

AFS122

The higher the load the worse radio conditions and therefore higher usage of more robust codec, impacting in Speech Quality

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Field Test Measurements

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AMR Whole Test Area

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Scenario Utilized

One sector submitted to Interference, and 3 routes selected (drive tests): RED one, at the edge of the cell with low CIR BLUE one with intermediate CIR GREEN one with good CIR conditions
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Example of comparisson AMR vs EFR: Thresholds 8/11/15


RXQUAL DISTRIBUTION
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 AMR EFR
60 40 20 0 120 100 80 AMR EFR

CODEC DISTRIBUTION

RXLEV DISTRIBUTION
60 50 40 30 20

Same RXQUAL distribution for fair comparison between Cases


12 10
AMR EFR

% Codec DL [122]

% Codec DL [940]

% Codec DL [590]

% Codec DL [740]

AL

AL

AL

AL

AL

AL

AL

XQ

XQ

XQ

XQ

XQ

XQ

XQ

XQ

AL

FER PER CODEC

RED route

8 AMR 6 4 EFR

10

2
0 RXLEV RXLEV RXLEV RXLEV RXLEV RXLEV RXLEV RXLEV -110 to -100 to -90 to - -80 to - -70 to - -60 to - -50 to - -47 to -101 -91 81 71 61 51 48 0

0 Erased [122]: Erased [940]: Erased [590]: Erased [475]:

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Field Test performance of Codec Mode Adaptation

AMR vs. EFR


60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% AMR EFR

BQS (FER > 4%)

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

BQS (FER > 4%)

AMR

EFR

RED route

AMR LA thresholds: 4,7,11dB


60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% AMR EFR

AMR LA thresholds: 6,9,13dB


60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% AMR EFR

BQS (FER > 4%)

BQS (FER > 4%)

AMR LA thresholds: 8,11,15dB


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AFS590 vs. EFR

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Correlation RXQual-FER per codec


Correlation Codec-Rxqual-FER
60.000% 50.000% 40.000% Aver. FER 30.000% 20.000% 10.000% 0.000% (AFS12.2) (AFS7.40) (AFS5.90) (AFS4.75)
(AFS12.2) (AFS7.40) (AFS5.90) (AFS4.75)

Rx Q

Rx Q ua l 7

Rx Q ua l 6

Rx Q ua l 5

Rx Q ua l 4

Rx Q ua l 3

Rx Q ua l 2

Rx Q ua l 1

ua l

Taking RXQual and FER per codec of different drives with different thresholds, it can be seen that with RXQual 6 still codecs AFS5.90 and AFS4.75 performs quite well With RXQual 7 the MS should use only the most robust codec and avoid LA.

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Half-Rate Usage compares to EFR (good C/I)


Channel Usage Distr. HR % FR %

MOS v/s RXLEV


MOS_AMR MOS_EFR RX Qual Sub Raw C/I (dB) 35

99.7

0.3

3.50

30

25 3.00
MOS, RXQUAL

20

2.50

15

10 2.00 5

1.50
-1 08 -1 07 -1 06 -1 05 -1 04 -1 03 -1 02 -1 01 -9 9 -9 8 -9 7 -9 6 -9 5 -9 4 -9 3 -9 2 -9 1 -9 0 -8 9 -8 8 -8 7 -8 6 -8 5 -8 4 -8 3 -8 2 -8 1 -8 0 -7 9 -7 8 -7 7 -7 6 -7 5 -7 4 -6 4

RXLEV Sub

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C/I, RXQUAL

AMR Implementation

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AMR - NETWORK IMPLEMENTATION


AMR for more capacity and better spectral efficiency All users would certainly prefer a slightly less than optimum speech quality call rather than no call at all, which make the customers frustrated with network busy. The dynamic capacity of Half Rate allows to decrease the number of blocked calls. Where extra capacity is needed for a short period each day (i.e. traffic jams, ).

Where temporary capacity is needed during some periods (i.e. summer holidays on the coast).
Where specific or recurrent events take place (i.e. festival, concert, ). Where it's no longer possible to add other TRX's (i.e. the Talk cabinet is already full with 6TRX's, or the impossibility to put new sites, ). Also before adding extension cabinets, it should be better to activate Half Rate on some TRX's.
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Implementation AMR in live network


Capacity and coverage gain Robust AMR codes -> capacity gain Lower C/I on cell edge accepted Improved BCCH plan For full AMR mobile penetration networks only Mixed EFR AMR traffic networks More aggressive power adjustment for AMR mobiles > less interference from AMR mobiles

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AMR Mobile Penetration


AMR Capable mobiles in the network can be estimated using the Traffica Report MSC Mobile Type
Mobile Distribution
25000

20000

Numbers

15000

10000

5000

0
N 8910 N 8890 N 8850 N 8210 N 7650 N 7210 P900 T230 T610 T200 T610 T200 T300

Mobile Type

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Nokia AMR SW Requirements

Nokia BSC SW release S10.5/S10.5 ED or later BSS feature 630: AMR quality and coverage Nokia Talkfamily BTS SW release DF6.0-2 or later Nokia UltraSite/MetroSite BTS SW release CX(M)3.3-1 or later Nokia NSS SW release M10 or later NSS feature 901: Enhanced A-interface circuit allocation Multi-Vendor case / IOT might be needed Nokia NetAct OSS 3.1 or later
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AMR Planning, Implementation, Analysis Flow


Parameter Planning

Optimizer Plan Edit

(Nokia internal tool)

Parameter Implementation

Radio Access Configurator (RAC)

Network Doctor
(Reports:244,245,246)

Monitoring/Analysis

NetAct Reporter/Traffica Nemo outdoor TEMS


( RXLEV, RXQUAL, FER per Codec,Average FER)

Recommend parameter changes based on performance

Performance inline with the customer agreed KPIs

No

Yes Final Report Document

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GSM, GPRS and EDGE Performance


Evolution towards 3G/UMTS book
explains the key technology evolution included in both ETSI GSM and 3GPP/GERAN standards highlights 3GPP Release 4 and 5 evolution introducing UMTS based GERAN architecture thoroughly analyses the performance of GSM/AMR, GPRS and EDGE presents an innovative approach to automate the Radio Access Network planning and optimisation positions from a technical and marketing perspective the main IMT2000 Radio Access Technologies describes the UMTS Multi-Radio and the benefits from a seamless integration of GERAN and UTRAN

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