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Overview (10.1)

200+ Years Old (Turtle (1775) and Hunley (1864))

Navy mostly uses submarines (indefinite underwater

endurance)

Commercial industry uses submersibles (limited

endurance)

Expensive but stealthy!

Share characteristics of both surface ships and aircraft

CSS Hunley

SUBMARINES

Submarine Structural Design (10.2)

Longitudinal Bending - Hogging & sagging

causes large compressive and tensile stresses

away from neutral axis. A cylinder is a poor

bending element.

Hydrostatic Pressure = Major load for subs.

Water pressure attempts to implode ship.

Transverse frames required to combat loading.

A cylinder is a good pressure vessel!

Recall:

P

abs

P

atm

gh

where

gh hydrostatic pressure P

gauge

SUBMARINES

Submarine Inner Hull (10.2)

Holds the pressure sensitive equipment

(including the crew!)

Must withstand hydrostatic pressure at ops

depth.

Transversely framed with thick plating.

Strength l = $ l, A l, space , but depth l .

Advanced materials needed due to high o.

SUBMARINES

Submarine Outer Hull (10.2)

Smooth fairing over non-pressure sensitive

equipment such as ballast and trim tanks

and anchors to improve vessel

hydrodynamics.

High strength not required so made of mild

steels and fiberglass.

Anechoic (free from echoes and

reverberation) material on outer hull to

decrease sonar signature.

SUBMARINES

Submarine General Arrangements (10.2)

Main Ballast Tanks

Variable Ballast Tanks

PRESSURE HULL

SUBMARINES

Main Ballast Tanks (MBT) (10.2)

Largest tanks.

Alter A from positive buoyancy on surface

(empty) to near neutral buoyancy when

submerged (full).

Main Ballast Tanks are soft tanks

because they do not need to withstand

submerged hydrostatic pressure.

(Located between inner & outer hulls.)

SUBMARINES

Variable Ballast Tanks (10.2)

Depth Control Tank (DCT)

Alter buoyancy once submerged.

Compensates for environmental factors (water

density changes).

Hard tank because it can be pressurized (has

access to outside of pressure hull).

Trim Tanks (FTT/ATT)

Soft tanks shift water to control trim (internal)

SUBMARINES

U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)

Ohio Class

Sub Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs) aft of

sail

A greater than many surface ships (i.e. BIG)

SUBMARINES

U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)

Los Angeles Class (SSN688)

Fairwater planes

SUBMARINES

U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)

Bow planes

SUBMARINES

U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)

BEAT

ARMY!

SUBMARINES

U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)

Virginia Class

Displacement: 7,800 tons

Length: 377 feet

Draft: 32 feet

Beam: 34 feet

Depth: 800+ feet

SUBMARINES

U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)

USS Dolphin

AGSS-555

L = 165 feet

Diesel/Electric

3000 feet depth!

NR1

L = 145 feet

Nuclear

2400 feet depth

SUBMARINES

Submarine Hydrostatics (10.4)

USS Bremerton (SSN 698)

SUBMARINES

Submarine Hydrostatics (10.4)

Static equilibrium and Archimedes Principle apply

to subs as well.

Unlike surface ships, subs must actively pursue

equilibrium when submerged due to changes

in density () and volume (V).

Depth Control Tanks & trim tanks are used.

Archimedes F

B

g

Static Equilibrium F

B

g

SUBMARINES

Hydrostatic Challenges (10.4)

MAINTAIN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY

Salinity Effects

Water Temperature Effects

Depth Effects

MAINTAIN NEUTRAL TRIM AND LIST

Transverse Weight Shifts

Longitudinal Weight Shifts

SUBMARINES

Hydrostatics (Salinity Effects) (10.4)

Decreased = less F

B

sub weight > F

B

.

Must pump water out of DCT

Changes in salinity common near river

estuaries or polar ice.

Mediterranean salinity is higher from

evaporation.

Water density () + as salinity level +.

SUBMARINES

Hydrostatics (Temperature Effects) (10.4)

Decreased = less F

B

sub weight > F

B

.

Must pump water out of DCT to

compensate.

Changes in temperature near river

estuaries or ocean currents (Gulf Stream,

Kuroshio, etc.)

Water density () + as temperature |.

SUBMARINES

Hydrostatics (Depth Effects) (10.4)

As depth increases, sub is squeezed

and volume (V) decreases.

Decreased V = less F

B

sub weight > F

B

.

Must pump water out of DCT

Anechoic tiles cause additional volume

loss as they compress more.

SUBMARINES

Neutral Trim - General (10.4)

When surfaced, geometric relationships similar

except that G is below B for sub.

Neutral trim on sub becomes extremely critical

when submerged.

Note the positions of G, B, M

T

, and

M

L

in the following figures!

SUBMARINES

Neutral Trim - General (10.4)

Recall: these relationships can be used in

transverse or longitudinal directions to find

KM

T

or KM

L

for a surface ship.

SUBMARINES

Neutral Trim - General (10.4)

Surfaced submarine similar to surface ship except

G is below B.

For clarity, M

T

is shown above B although distance is very

small in reality.

SUBMARINES

Neutral Trim - General (10.4)

When submerging, waterplane disappears, so no

second moment of area (I), and therefore no

metacentric radius (BM

L

or BM

T

).

B, M

T

and M

L

are coincident and located at

the centroid of the underwater volume -the half

diameter point (if a cylinder).

Very sensitive to trim since longitudinal and

transverse initial stability are the same.

SUBMARINES

Neutral Trim - General (10.4)

When completely submerged, the positions of B,

M

T

and M

L

are in the same place.

SUBMARINES

Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)

Recall In Surface Ship Analysis:

GM

T

is found by equation (& Incline

Experiment) to calculate the vertical center of

gravity, KG.

Equation was only good for small angles (|)

since the metacenter is not stationary at larger

angles.

Large | only available from analysis of Curve

of Statical Intact Stability.

SUBMARINES

Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)

Recall for a Surface Vessel:

L

B

L

W

0

G

o

G

t

B

o

B

f

S

M

T O

F

B

Starboard Port

t

W

O

Tan

G

0

G

t

G

0

M

T

G

0

G

t

wt

S

S

G

0

M

T

Tan wt

SUBMARINES

Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)

For a Submarine:

Tan

Tan

G

0

G

t

BG

0

G

0

G

t

wt

S

S

BG

0

Tan wt

(GM is replaced by BG!)

SUBMARINES

Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)

In Submarine Analysis:

Calculation of heeling angle simplified by

identical location of Center of Buoyancy (B)

and Metacenter (M).

Analysis involves the triangle G

0

G

T

B and a

knowledge of the weight shift.

This equation is good for all angles:

S

BG

0

Tan wt

SUBMARINES

Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)

Surface Ship analysis complicated because

vessel trims about the center of floatation (F)

(which is seldom at amidships).

Sub longitudinal analysis is exactly the same as

transverse case. For all angles of trim:

Moment arm l > > t, so trim tanks to compensate.

wl

S

BG

0

Tan

SUBMARINES

Submarine Stability (10.5)

USS Seawolf

SSN-21

SUBMARINES

Submarine Submerged Intact Stability (10.5)

SUBMARINES

Submarine Intact Stability (10.5)

Initial stability simplified for subs.

The distance BG is constant (=GM) Righting Arm

(GZ) is purely a function of heel angle.

EQUATION IS TRUE FOR ALL SUBMERGED SUBS

IN ALL CONDITIONS!

Righting Arm GZ BG Sin

SUBMARINES

Submarine Intact Stability (10.5)

Since righting arm equation good for all |, curve

of intact statical stability always a sine curve

with a peak value equal to BG.

SUBMARINES

Submerged Stability Characteristics (10.5)

Range of Stability: 0-180

Angle of Max Righting Arm: 90

Max Righting Arm: Distance BG

Dynamic Stability: 2A

S

BG

STABILITY CURVE HAS THE SAME

CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL SUBS!

SUBMARINES

Submarine Resistance (10.6)

Recall Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance

C

V

= viscous component, depends on Rn.

C

W

= wave making resistance, depends on Fn.

C

A

= correlation allowance, surface

roughness and fudge factor.

C

T

C

V

C

W

C

A

C

V

(1 K) C

F

SUBMARINES

Submarine Resistance (10.6)

On surface (acts like a surface ship):

C

V

dominates at low speed, C

W

as speed increases

(due to bigger bow and stern waves and wake

turbulence).

Submerged (acts like an aircraft):

Skin friction (C

F

C

V

) dominates. (Rn is more

important when no fluid (air/water) interface).

C

W

tends toward zero at depth.

Since C

T

is smaller when submerged, higher

speeds are possible.

SUBMARINES

Submarine Propellers - Odd # of Blades (10.6)

SUBMARINES

Skewed Propellers (10.6)

Advantages:

Reduced Vibration (eases into flow).

Reduced Cavitation.

Disadvantages:

Inefficient backing.

Expensive & difficult to make.

Reduced strength.

Operational need outweighs disadvantages!

SUBMARINES

Submarine Seakeeping (10.7)

Subjected to same as surface ships

3 translation (surge, sway, heave) and 3

rotational (roll, pitch, yaw).

Recall heave, pitch, and roll are simple

harmonic motions because of linear restoring

force.

If e

e

= resonant freq, amplitudes maximized

(particularly roll which is sharply tuned).

Roll motion accentuated by round shape. Why?

SUBMARINES

Submarine Seakeeping - Suction Force (10.7)

Water Surface Effect

Submarine near surface (e.g. periscope depth) has low

pressure on top surface of hull causing net upward

force.

Magnitude depends on speed, depth, and hull shape.

Minimize by reducing speed and having bow down trim.

Wave Action

Top of sub has faster velocity due to similar lower

pressure effect as above.

Minimize by going deeper or beam on to waves.

SUBMARINES

Submarine Maneuvering and Control (10.8)

Lateral motion controlled with rudder, engines,

and props, but also has to control depth.

Depth control accomplished by:

Making the buoyant force equal the submarine

displacement as in previous section.

Finer and more positive control achieved by

plane (control) surfaces.

SUBMARINES

Fair-Water Planes (10.8)

Primarily to maintain an ordered depth.

Positioning the planes to the "up" position

causes an upward lift force to be generated.

Since forward of the center of gravity, a

moment (M) is also produced which causes

some slight pitch.

The dominant effect is the lift generated by the

control surface.

SUBMARINES

Fair-Water Planes (10.8)

Primarily DEPTH CONTROL

SUBMARINES

Stern and Bow Planes (10.8)

Primarily to maintain pitch because of the

distance from the center of gravity.

Positioning the planes to creates a lift force in

the downward direction creates a moment (M)

which causes the submarine to pitch up.

Once the submarine has an up angle, the hull

produces an upward lift force.

The net effect is that the submarine rises at an

upward angle.

SUBMARINES

Stern and Bow Planes (10.8)

Maintain Pitch

(better control than with fairwater planes)

SUBMARINES

FINAL THOUGHT...

There are times when accurate control is nice!

NAVAL ENGINEERING I

Good Luck and Good Boating!

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