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SUBMARINES

Overview (10.1)
200+ Years Old (Turtle (1775) and Hunley (1864))

Navy mostly uses submarines (indefinite underwater
endurance)

Commercial industry uses submersibles (limited
endurance)

Expensive but stealthy!

Share characteristics of both surface ships and aircraft
CSS Hunley
SUBMARINES
Submarine Structural Design (10.2)
Longitudinal Bending - Hogging & sagging
causes large compressive and tensile stresses
away from neutral axis. A cylinder is a poor
bending element.

Hydrostatic Pressure = Major load for subs.
Water pressure attempts to implode ship.
Transverse frames required to combat loading.
A cylinder is a good pressure vessel!

Recall:
P
abs
P
atm
gh
where
gh hydrostatic pressure P
gauge
SUBMARINES
Submarine Inner Hull (10.2)
Holds the pressure sensitive equipment
(including the crew!)

Must withstand hydrostatic pressure at ops
depth.

Transversely framed with thick plating.

Strength l = $ l, A l, space , but depth l .

Advanced materials needed due to high o.
SUBMARINES
Submarine Outer Hull (10.2)
Smooth fairing over non-pressure sensitive
equipment such as ballast and trim tanks
and anchors to improve vessel
hydrodynamics.

High strength not required so made of mild
steels and fiberglass.

Anechoic (free from echoes and
reverberation) material on outer hull to
decrease sonar signature.
SUBMARINES
Submarine General Arrangements (10.2)
Main Ballast Tanks






Variable Ballast Tanks
PRESSURE HULL
SUBMARINES
Main Ballast Tanks (MBT) (10.2)
Largest tanks.

Alter A from positive buoyancy on surface
(empty) to near neutral buoyancy when
submerged (full).

Main Ballast Tanks are soft tanks
because they do not need to withstand
submerged hydrostatic pressure.
(Located between inner & outer hulls.)
SUBMARINES
Variable Ballast Tanks (10.2)
Depth Control Tank (DCT)

Alter buoyancy once submerged.

Compensates for environmental factors (water
density changes).

Hard tank because it can be pressurized (has
access to outside of pressure hull).

Trim Tanks (FTT/ATT)

Soft tanks shift water to control trim (internal)
SUBMARINES
U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)
Ohio Class
Sub Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs) aft of
sail

A greater than many surface ships (i.e. BIG)
SUBMARINES
U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)
Los Angeles Class (SSN688)
Fairwater planes
SUBMARINES
U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)
Bow planes
SUBMARINES
U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)
BEAT
ARMY!
SUBMARINES
U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)
Virginia Class
Displacement: 7,800 tons

Length: 377 feet

Draft: 32 feet

Beam: 34 feet

Depth: 800+ feet
SUBMARINES
U.S. Submarine Types (10.3)
USS Dolphin
AGSS-555
L = 165 feet
Diesel/Electric
3000 feet depth!
NR1
L = 145 feet
Nuclear
2400 feet depth
SUBMARINES
Submarine Hydrostatics (10.4)
USS Bremerton (SSN 698)
SUBMARINES
Submarine Hydrostatics (10.4)
Static equilibrium and Archimedes Principle apply
to subs as well.





Unlike surface ships, subs must actively pursue
equilibrium when submerged due to changes
in density () and volume (V).

Depth Control Tanks & trim tanks are used.
Archimedes F
B
g
Static Equilibrium F
B
g
SUBMARINES
Hydrostatic Challenges (10.4)
MAINTAIN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY

Salinity Effects
Water Temperature Effects
Depth Effects


MAINTAIN NEUTRAL TRIM AND LIST

Transverse Weight Shifts
Longitudinal Weight Shifts
SUBMARINES
Hydrostatics (Salinity Effects) (10.4)
Decreased = less F
B

sub weight > F
B
.
Must pump water out of DCT

Changes in salinity common near river
estuaries or polar ice.

Mediterranean salinity is higher from
evaporation.

Water density () + as salinity level +.
SUBMARINES
Hydrostatics (Temperature Effects) (10.4)
Decreased = less F
B

sub weight > F
B
.
Must pump water out of DCT to
compensate.

Changes in temperature near river
estuaries or ocean currents (Gulf Stream,
Kuroshio, etc.)
Water density () + as temperature |.
SUBMARINES
Hydrostatics (Depth Effects) (10.4)
As depth increases, sub is squeezed
and volume (V) decreases.


Decreased V = less F
B

sub weight > F
B
.
Must pump water out of DCT

Anechoic tiles cause additional volume
loss as they compress more.
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.4)
When surfaced, geometric relationships similar
except that G is below B for sub.


Neutral trim on sub becomes extremely critical
when submerged.


Note the positions of G, B, M
T
, and
M
L
in the following figures!
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.4)
Recall: these relationships can be used in
transverse or longitudinal directions to find
KM
T
or KM
L
for a surface ship.
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.4)
Surfaced submarine similar to surface ship except
G is below B.

For clarity, M
T
is shown above B although distance is very
small in reality.
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.4)
When submerging, waterplane disappears, so no
second moment of area (I), and therefore no
metacentric radius (BM
L
or BM
T
).

B, M
T
and M
L
are coincident and located at
the centroid of the underwater volume -the half
diameter point (if a cylinder).

Very sensitive to trim since longitudinal and
transverse initial stability are the same.
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.4)
When completely submerged, the positions of B,
M
T
and M
L
are in the same place.
SUBMARINES
Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)
Recall In Surface Ship Analysis:

GM
T
is found by equation (& Incline
Experiment) to calculate the vertical center of
gravity, KG.

Equation was only good for small angles (|)
since the metacenter is not stationary at larger
angles.

Large | only available from analysis of Curve
of Statical Intact Stability.
SUBMARINES
Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)
Recall for a Surface Vessel:
L
B
L
W
0
G
o
G
t
B
o
B
f
S
M
T O
F
B
Starboard Port
t
W
O
Tan
G
0
G
t
G
0
M
T
G
0
G
t

wt

S

S
G
0
M
T
Tan wt
SUBMARINES
Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)
For a Submarine:
Tan
Tan
G
0
G
t
BG
0
G
0
G
t

wt

S

S
BG
0
Tan wt
(GM is replaced by BG!)
SUBMARINES
Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)
In Submarine Analysis:

Calculation of heeling angle simplified by
identical location of Center of Buoyancy (B)
and Metacenter (M).

Analysis involves the triangle G
0
G
T
B and a
knowledge of the weight shift.

This equation is good for all angles:

S
BG
0
Tan wt
SUBMARINES
Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.4)
Surface Ship analysis complicated because
vessel trims about the center of floatation (F)
(which is seldom at amidships).

Sub longitudinal analysis is exactly the same as
transverse case. For all angles of trim:



Moment arm l > > t, so trim tanks to compensate.
wl
S
BG
0
Tan
SUBMARINES
Submarine Stability (10.5)
USS Seawolf
SSN-21
SUBMARINES
Submarine Submerged Intact Stability (10.5)
SUBMARINES
Submarine Intact Stability (10.5)
Initial stability simplified for subs.

The distance BG is constant (=GM) Righting Arm
(GZ) is purely a function of heel angle.




EQUATION IS TRUE FOR ALL SUBMERGED SUBS
IN ALL CONDITIONS!
Righting Arm GZ BG Sin
SUBMARINES
Submarine Intact Stability (10.5)
Since righting arm equation good for all |, curve
of intact statical stability always a sine curve
with a peak value equal to BG.
SUBMARINES
Submerged Stability Characteristics (10.5)
Range of Stability: 0-180

Angle of Max Righting Arm: 90

Max Righting Arm: Distance BG

Dynamic Stability: 2A
S
BG

STABILITY CURVE HAS THE SAME
CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL SUBS!
SUBMARINES
Submarine Resistance (10.6)
Recall Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance



C
V
= viscous component, depends on Rn.



C
W
= wave making resistance, depends on Fn.

C
A
= correlation allowance, surface
roughness and fudge factor.
C
T
C
V
C
W
C
A
C
V
(1 K) C
F
SUBMARINES
Submarine Resistance (10.6)
On surface (acts like a surface ship):

C
V
dominates at low speed, C
W
as speed increases
(due to bigger bow and stern waves and wake
turbulence).

Submerged (acts like an aircraft):

Skin friction (C
F
C
V
) dominates. (Rn is more
important when no fluid (air/water) interface).

C
W
tends toward zero at depth.

Since C
T
is smaller when submerged, higher
speeds are possible.
SUBMARINES
Submarine Propellers - Odd # of Blades (10.6)
SUBMARINES
Skewed Propellers (10.6)
Advantages:

Reduced Vibration (eases into flow).
Reduced Cavitation.

Disadvantages:

Inefficient backing.
Expensive & difficult to make.
Reduced strength.

Operational need outweighs disadvantages!
SUBMARINES
Submarine Seakeeping (10.7)
Subjected to same as surface ships

3 translation (surge, sway, heave) and 3
rotational (roll, pitch, yaw).
Recall heave, pitch, and roll are simple
harmonic motions because of linear restoring
force.

If e
e
= resonant freq, amplitudes maximized
(particularly roll which is sharply tuned).

Roll motion accentuated by round shape. Why?
SUBMARINES
Submarine Seakeeping - Suction Force (10.7)
Water Surface Effect

Submarine near surface (e.g. periscope depth) has low
pressure on top surface of hull causing net upward
force.
Magnitude depends on speed, depth, and hull shape.
Minimize by reducing speed and having bow down trim.

Wave Action

Top of sub has faster velocity due to similar lower
pressure effect as above.
Minimize by going deeper or beam on to waves.
SUBMARINES
Submarine Maneuvering and Control (10.8)
Lateral motion controlled with rudder, engines,
and props, but also has to control depth.

Depth control accomplished by:

Making the buoyant force equal the submarine
displacement as in previous section.

Finer and more positive control achieved by
plane (control) surfaces.
SUBMARINES
Fair-Water Planes (10.8)
Primarily to maintain an ordered depth.
Positioning the planes to the "up" position
causes an upward lift force to be generated.

Since forward of the center of gravity, a
moment (M) is also produced which causes
some slight pitch.

The dominant effect is the lift generated by the
control surface.
SUBMARINES
Fair-Water Planes (10.8)
Primarily DEPTH CONTROL
SUBMARINES
Stern and Bow Planes (10.8)
Primarily to maintain pitch because of the
distance from the center of gravity.

Positioning the planes to creates a lift force in
the downward direction creates a moment (M)
which causes the submarine to pitch up.
Once the submarine has an up angle, the hull
produces an upward lift force.

The net effect is that the submarine rises at an
upward angle.
SUBMARINES
Stern and Bow Planes (10.8)
Maintain Pitch
(better control than with fairwater planes)
SUBMARINES
FINAL THOUGHT...
There are times when accurate control is nice!
NAVAL ENGINEERING I
Good Luck and Good Boating!