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WELCOME

U.URBAN KUMAR M.E CAD/CAM IV Sem 2006 Under the guidance of Prof.B.S.K. SUNDARASIVARAO

A.U

Transient thermal analysis of a disc brake rotor using F.E.A

Abstract
The

present investigation is aimed to study. The given disc brake rotor for its stability and rigidity (for this Thermal analysis and coupled structural analysis is carried out on a given disc brake rotor). Best combination of parameters of disc brake rotor like Flange width, wall thickness and material there by a best combination is suggested. (for this three different combinations in each case is analyzed) The correlation between Ansys results and experimental results

Introduction

When a brake is working, the transformation of kinetic energy of moving masses into thermal energy takes place. Brake elements are heated, which leads to the deterioration of work conditions of a brake pad, increasing its, wear and decreasing the coefficient of friction. Therefore, the limitation of brake heating is one of the important problems in the calculation and construction brake blocks, and in certain cases the thermal calculation defines the choice of a brake. When the construction of brake systems is being designed, it is necessary to know the temperature and the thermal distortion of the interface in the frictional contact region. The analytical definition of heating parameters must take into account the condition under which the mechanism must work. Thus, in intensive momentary braking the radiation of heat into the surroundings may be neglected. Then since the brake pads are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, almost all the heat generated in friction is directed inside the disk. In view of the short duration of the braking process, the heat generated has no time to heat all the disk and, hence, the temperature of the disk working surface is considerably higher than the mean value of the volume temperature.

BRAKE

A brake is a device by means of which artificial frictional resistance is applied to moving machine member, in order to stop the motion of a machine. In the process of performing this function, the brakes absorb either kinetic energy of the moving member or the potential energy given up by objects being lowered by hoists, elevators etc., the energy absorbed by brakes is dissipated in the form of heat. This heat is dissipated in the surrounding atmosphere.

DISC BREAK

Working applied Disc brake pads, which comes in to of force (pressure) acts on the brake The principle used is the
contact with the moving disc. At this point of time due to friction the relative motion is constrained. A moving car has a certain amount of Kinetic energy and the brakes have to remove this energy from the car in order to stop it. Each time the car is stopped, the brakes convert Kinetic energy to heat generated by the friction between the pads and the disc slows the disc down. When the brakes are applied, hydraulically actuated pistons move the friction pads in to contact with the disc , applying equal and opposite forces on the later. On releasing the brakes the rubber-sealing ring acts as return spring and retract the pistons and the friction pads away from the disc

ail Following

Definition of problem:

Due to the application of brakes on the car disc brake rotor, heat generation takes place due to friction and this temperature so generated has to be conducted and dispersed across the disc rotor cross section. The condition of braking is very much severe and thus the thermal analysis has to be carried out. Linear thermal analysis is performed to obtain the temperature field since conductivity and specific heat of the material considered here are independent of temperature. The analysis performed here is transient thermal analysis as temperature distribution varies with time. (The time for thermal analysis is taken as 4.8 seconds of braking) An Ansys thermal model was developed to predict temperatures through the brake corner. The model includes the brake disc, pads, caliper, wheel, spindle and axle in order to accurately predict brake system temperatures during long braking and heat soaking conditions. In addition, the model can be used to predict the brake fluid temperature rise. Various aspects of the brake thermal analysis process are schematically summarized in fig below.

Brake Thermal Analysis Process for a Vehicle Under a Given Braking Schedule

Boundary conditions

Geometry boundary conditions: The temperature 250 C is fixed at the hub bore grinds as the boundary conditions. The standard convection law is used. Thermal Boundary conditions: i) A convection boundary condition is applied on all sides of the axis symmetric model except in the region of tread and the hub. The heat transfer coefficient of 50 W/m2k is considered. ii) The thermal load is applied axis symmetrically on the tread of the wheel is a heat flux (q) of value 75e4 W/m2 and is analyzed for 4.8 seconds of braking i.e. the heat generate is going to be distributed along the profile after the application of the brakes .

ASSUMPTIONS

The analysis is done taking the disc brake efficiency as 30% (since the distribution of the braking torque between the front and rear axle is 70:30) Brakes are applied on all the four wheels. The analysis is based on pure thermal loading and vibrations and thus only stress levels due to the above is done. The analysis does not determine the life of the disc brake. Only ambient air-cooling is taken in to account and no forced convection is taken. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is lost through the brake discs i.e. no heat loss between the tyres and the road surface and the deceleration is uniform. The disc brake model used is of solid type and not the ventilated one. The thermal conductivity of the material used for the analysis is uniform throughout. The specific heat of the material used is constant throughout and does not change with the temperature.

CALCULATION
Data: Velocity of the vehicle = 96.6 k.m.p.h = 26.833 m/s Time for stopping the vehicle = 4.8 seconds Mass of the vehicle = 1000 kg. Step-1: Kinetic Energy (K.E) = * m * v2 = * 1000 * 26.8332 = 360 KJ The above said is the Total Kinetic Energy induced while the vehicle is under motion. Step-2: The total kinetic energy = The heat generated but the heat generated in one of the wheel of the car is 1/3rd the total kinetic energy.[2] i.e. this 28.6 K. Cal/ft2 hr. 1 Cal = 1/252 Btu & 1 Btu = 1.05504 KJ
Given

CALCULATION

cont..

28.6 1000 1.05504 252

= 120 KJ which is 1/3rd the total kinetic energy.


Step-3: The area of the rubbing faces

A = (r12-r22) A = 329x10-4 m2

= (0.145622 0.10362)

Step-4: The density of heat flow (Heat Flux) directed in to the disc. Heat Flux= heat generated = 120 area of contracting surfaceXbreaking time 329X10-4 X4.8 q = 750000 w/m2

Geometric Model of a Disc Brake

Thermal Material Properties of CI, Al & Steel


CAST IRON ALUMINIU M 23e-6 STEEL

Thermal Co-efficient of expansion ( xx) / 0 C

11e-6

12e-6

Thermal Conductivity (K) W/mk


Specific Heat (Cp) J/Kg K

50

228

73

450

938

460

All applied boundary conditions

Temperature distribution for Cast Iron 8mm flange width

Temperature distribution for Cast Iron 10mm flange width

Temperature distribution for Cast Iron 12mm flange width

Temperature distribution for Cast Iron 14mm flange width

Temperature distribution for Aluminum 10mm flange width

Temperature distribution for Steel 10mm flange width

.Temperature Vs Distance along the contacting surface of 10mm flange width of Cast Iron in X-direction.

Temperature Vs Distance along the contacting surface of 10mm flange width of Cast Iron in Y-direction.

Flange width Vs Temperature for CAST IRON


Flange width Vs Temperature
Temperature (deg celsius)

206 204 202 Max temp 200 198 196 8 10 12 14 Flange width (mm)

Max Temperature Vs Flange width for ALUMINIUM


Max Temp Vs Flange width
200
Temperature (deg celsius)

150 100 50 0 8 10 12 14 Flange width (mm) Max Temp

Max Temperature Vs Flange width for STEEL


Max temp Vs Flange width
186 184 182 180 178 176 174 172 170 168 8 10 12 14 Flange width (mm)

Temperature (deg celsius)

Max temp

Results of maximum Temperatures attained


Flange width In mm CAST IRON In oC ALUMINIUM In oC STEEL In oC

198.698

171.567

183.494

10

203.912

156.701

181.062

12

202.286

143.904

176.982

14

201.407

134.689

174.470

the maximum temperature attained for different flange widths and for different materials.
For Cast Iron Disc, the maximum temperature is attained for a flange width of 10mm, which is 203.912 C. This temperature value is nearest to the experimental value of 215 C . The temperature variation for different flange width is as shown in the Graph. For Aluminum Disc, the maximum temperature is attained for a flange width of 8mm, which is 171.567C. The temperature variation for different flange width is as shown in the Graph

For Steel Disc, the maximum temperature is attained for a flange width of 8mm, which is 183.494C. The temperature variation for different flange width is as shown in the Graph From the above results we can conclude that the Cast Iron Disc of flange width 10mm nears to the experimental value, hence this is recommended. Moreover the temperature distribution on the contacting surface along X direction and Y direction is as shown in the Graphs

Structural material properties of Ci, Al & Steel


Properties Material Cast iron Aluminum Steel

1. YOUNGS MODULUS (E) Gpa 180 2. POISSONS RATIO (V) 0.25 0.25 0.25 170 200

3. COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION () /oC

11e-6

23.4e-6

12e-6

Stress in X-direction for Cast Iron 10mm flange width

Stress in Y-direction for Cast Iron 10mm flange width

1st Principal Stress for Cast Iron 10mm flange width.

2nd Principal Stress for Cast Iron 10mm flange width.

Vonmises stress for Cast Iron 10mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Cast Iron 8mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Cast Iron 12mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Cast Iron 14mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Aluminum 8mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Aluminum 10mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Aluminum 12mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Aluminum 14mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Steel 8mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Steel 10mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Steel 12mm flange width

Vonmises stress for Steel 14mm flange width

Vonmises stress Vs Flange width for Cast Iron


VONMISES STRESS Vs FLANGE WIDTH IRON)
VONMISES STRESS (MPa)

(CAST

250 200 150 100 50 0 8 10 12 14 FLANGE WIDTH (mm) Series1

Vonmises stress Vs Flange width for Aluminum


VONMISES STRESS Vs FLANGE WIDTH (ALUMINIUM)
VONMISES STRESS (MPa)

100 80 60 40 20 0 8 10 12 14 FLANGE WIDTH (mm) Series1

Vonmises stress Vs Flange width for Steel


VONMISES STRESS Vs FLANGE WIDTH (STEEL)
VONMISES STRESS (MPa)

200 150 100 50 0 8 10 12 14 FLANGE WIDTH (mm) Series1

Result s of various stresses obtained for CI, Al & Steel.


Sl No. Material Flange width in mm 8 mm 10 mm 1. CAST IRON 12 mm 70.6 73.2 85.8 48.5 206 Stress in XDirection mpa 40.4 80.1 Stress in Y-direction mpa 59.7 69.8 1st principal stress mpa 62.6 81.0 2nd principal stress mpa 26.5 68.8 Vonmises stress mpa 230 222

14 mm
8 mm 10 mm 2. ALUMINIUM 12 mm 14 mm

62.2
24.8 31.3 35.2 36.6

21.1
7.73 7.55 9.41 11.9

62.2
24.8 31.3 35.2 36.6

20.8
5.23 7.12 9.04 11.7

179
48.6 63.7 75.7 84.2

8 mm
10 mm 3. STEEL 12 mm 14 mm

52.0
62.6 66.0 63.3

13.3
14.7 17.4 21.0

52.0
62.6 66.0 63.3

10.6
13.8 16.7 20.7

106
137 157 169

the variation of stress for different materials having different flange widths.

For Disc made of Cast Iron, maximum Vonmises stress is observed for 8mm flange width which is 230Mpa and minimum Vonmises stress is observed for 14mm flange width which is 179 MPa. For Disc made of Aluminum, maximum Vonmises stress is observed for 14mm flange width which is 84.2MPa and minimum Vonmises stress is observed for 8mm flange width which is 48.6 MPa. For Disc made of Steel, maximum Vonmises stress is observed for 14mm flange width which is 169MPa and minimum Vonmises stress is observed for 8mm flange width which is 106 MPa. Hence it is seen that the Vonmises stress decreases with increase in flange width for Cast Iron Disc and increases with increase in flange width for Steel and Aluminum Discs Viewing the above results and the discussion made in this chapter regarding the material of the Disc Brake we can conclude that the Cast Iron Disc of 10mm flange width can be preferred.

CONCLUSIONS

The following conclusions are drawn from the present work. An axis-symmetric analysis of disc brake has been carried out using plane 77 and plane 82 through ANSYS R 5.4 (F.E.A) software. A transient thermal analysis is carried out using the direct time integration technique for the application of braking force due to friction for time duration of 4.8 seconds. The maximum temperature obtained in the brake disc is at the contact surface and is observed to be 203.912C for cast iron disc of 10mm flange width, which varies only by 5.16% from the experimental value. Static structural analysis is carried out by coupling the thermal solution to the structural analysis and the maximum Vonmises stress is observed to be 230 MPa for Cast Iron Disc of 8mm flange width. The brake disc design is safe based on the strength and rigidity criteria. Comparing the different results obtained from the analysis, it is concluded that disc brake with 10 mm flange width, 6.5 mm wall thickness and of material cast iron is the best possible combination for the present application.