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MATERIAL PROPERTIES

BY KAUSTUBH PRASAD

MATERIAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Four important components
PROCESSING STRUCTURE PROPERTIES PERFOMANCE

MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA


In-service conditions must be specified Trade off may be required
For desired properties Cost considerations

Deterioration of properties during service Cost Considerations


Material cost Manufacturing cost

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID MATERIAL


Based on chemical makeup and atomic structure
Metals, Ceramics, Polymers Composites, Semiconductors, Biomaterials

METALS
Large no of non-localized electrons Good conductors of electricity and heat Not transparent to visible light Quite strong yet deformable

CERAMICS
Compounds between metals and non-metals Most frequently oxides, nitrides, carbides Insulators to electricity and heat More resistant to high temperature and harsh conditions then metals and polymers Hard but brittle

POLYMERS
Includes plastics and rubber Mostly organic compounds based on carbon, hydrogen and other nonmetallic elements Have large molecular structure

Low densities and extremely flexible

COMPOSITIES
Designed to display best characteristics of each of the component materials

Example: Fiberglass
Glass fiber are embedded within polymeric material Fiberglass acquires strength from glass and flexibility from polymer

SEMICONDUCTORS
Materials having electrical properties intermediate between conductors and insulators

Electrical properties are extremely sensitive to minute concentrations of impurity atoms

BIOMATERIALS
Employed in components implanted into human body for replacement of diseased or damaged parts Necessary requirements
Must not produce toxic substances Must be compatible with body tissues

All of the above viz. metals, ceramics, polymers, composites and semiconductors can be used as biomaterials

CHAPTER 2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND INTERATOMIC BONDING

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
PROTONS

ATOM

NEUTRONS

ELECTRONS

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
Electrical charge: 1.6 X 10-19 C
Both electron and proton Neutrons are charge less

Mass
Neutrons and Protons: 1.67 X 10-27 kg Electrons: 9.11 X 10 -31 kg

Atomic No: no of protons in the nucleus


For electrically neutral or complete atom, no of protons equals no of electrons Atomic no range: 1 for Hydrogen and 92 for Uranium

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
Atomic Mass: Sum of mass of protons + neutrons For a given element no of protons is same for all atoms but no of neutrons may be different Isotopes: Atoms of the same element having same atomic no but different atomic mass Atomic weight is the weighted average of atoms naturally occurring isotopes Atomic or Molecular weight:
Using amu (Atomic mass unit) Using mass per mole of a substance

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
1 amu is defined as 1/12 th of the atomic mass of C-12

Avogadros no: 6.023 X 10 ^ 23


1 mole = 6.023 X 10 ^ 23 atoms or molecules

1 amu/atom (or molecule) = 1 g/mole

ELECTRONS IN ATOMS
Bohr Atomic Model Position of electrons
Electron orbitals

Energy
Quantized energy levels

ELECTRONS IN ATOMS
Energies of electrons are quantized, electrons are allowed to take specific energies Electrons may change energies but in quantized steps

ELECTRONS IN ATOMS
Wave mechanical model
Position is described as a probability distribution or electron cloud

QUANTUM NUMBERS
Using wave mechanics, every electron in an atom is characterized by four parameters called quantum nos.
Size, shape and spatial orientation of electrons probability density are specified by 3 quantum nos. Furthermore Bhors energy levels separate into electron subshells and quantum nos. dictate numbers of states in each subshell

QUANTUM NUMBERS

QUANTUM NUMBERS

QUANTUM NUMBERS
Principle quantum no: n Subshell quantum no: l Fsdffsdfs, ml Spin quantum no, ms

QUANTUM NUMBERS

QUANTUM NUMBERS
Paulis exclusion principle
Each electron state can hold no more than 2 electrons

Ground state: electrons mostly occupy lowest possible energy states Electron transition to higher energy states is possible Valence electrons are those that occupy outer most filled shell
Valence electrons participate in forming chemical bonds Many physical and chemical properties depend on valence electrons

QUANTUM NUMBERS
Stable electron configuration:
When valance shell is completely filled

Some atoms whose valance shell remains unfilled attain stable configuration by gaining or loosing electrons to form charged ions or by sharing electrons with other atoms

PERIODIC TABLE

PERIODIC TABLE
Group 0 Group VII A Group I A Group II A D Block Group III A Group IV A Group V A : Inert gases : Halogens (F, Cl, Br, I and At) : Alkali metals () : Alkaline metals : Transition metals : Between metals and non-metals : Between metals and non-metals : Between metals and non-metals

PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS

ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS

ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS


Ro Eo : equilibrium spacing : Bonding energy corresponding to ro

PRIMARY INERATOMIC BONDS


Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Metallic bonds

IONIC BONDING
Metals easily give up electrons