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Ultimate Analysis from Proximate Analysis

Click to edit Master subtitle style 09-NTU-1057 09-NTU-1086

09-NTU-1058 09-NTU-1070 09-NTU-1078 09-NTU-1084

09-NTU-1092 09-NTU-1094 09-NTU-1099 09-NTU-1104


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Introduction
Coal is used extensively due to its Combustible properties It is Non-renewable energy source and depleted. Coalis acombustible black or brownish-blacksedimentary rock Coal is the largest source of energy for thegenerating electricity

worldwide
The largest worldwideanthropogenic sources ofcarbon dioxide

releases
Extracted from the ground bymining, either underground by shaft

miningthrough the seams or inopen pits 5/8/12

Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide Largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases Carbon dioxide emission from coal usage are slightly more than those

from petroleum and about double the amount from natural gas
Extracted from the ground by mining, either underground by shaft mining through

the seams or in open pits

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Top hard and brown coal producers in 2010 Countries


China U.S.A India Australia Indonesia Russia South Africa Poland Kazakhstan Columbia

Production/mton
3162 997 571 420 336 324 255 134 111 74
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Properties
Lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite and graphite are main types of coal, having different properties
Moisture Volatile matter Ash Fixed carbon

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Ultimate analysis V/s Proximate analysis

Ultimate analysis gives the composition of the biomass in wt% of carbon,

hydrogen and oxygen


Proximate analysis gives moisture content, volatile content, consisting of gases and

vapors driven off during pyrolysis


Proximate analysis is the most often used analysis for characterizing coals in

connection with their utilization

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Coal proximate Analysis


The objective of coal proximate analysis is to determine the amount of fixed carbon (FC), volatile matters (VM), moisture, and ash within the coal sample. The variables are measured in weight percent (wt. %) and are calculated in several different bases
Proximate Analysis

Moisture Ash Volatile Matter Fixed Carbon Gross Calorific value

Unit (Wt.%) (Wt.%) (Wt.%) (Wt.%) (MJ/kg)

(AR) 3.3 22.1 27.3 47.3 24.73

(AD) 2.7 22.2 27.5 47.6 24.88

(DB) 22.8 28.3 48.9 25.57


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(DAF)

36.6 63.4 33.13

Coal Ultimate Analysis


Coal proximate analysis, the objective of coal ultimate analysis is to determine the constituent of coal, but rather in a form of its basic chemical elements
Ultimate Analysis Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Nitrogen (N) Total Sulfur (S) Oxygen (O) Unit (Wt.%) (Wt.%) (Wt.%) (Wt.%) (Wt.%) (AR) 61.1 3.00 1.35 0.4 8.8 (AD) 61.5 3.02 1.36 0.39 8.8 (DB) 63.2 3.10 1.40 0.39 9.1 (DAF) 81.9 4.02 1.81 -

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Fuel Analysis Conversion


Calculate the percent fixed carbon on a dry,

mineral-matter-free basis:

DMMFFC = FC / (FC + VOL) * 100%


Calculate the percent volatile matter on a dry,

mineral-matter-free basis:

DMMFVOL = VOL / (FC + VOL) * 100%


Calculate the weight percent of carbon in the

fuel: C = ( (DMMFFC + 0.9 * (DMMFVOL -14)) * (VOL + FC) ) / 100


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Contd.
Calculate the weight percent of nitrogen in the

fuel:

N2 = ( (2.1 - 0.012 * DMMFVOL) * (VOL + FC) ) / 100


Calculate the weight percent hydrogen in the

fuel: H2 = ( [(DMMFVOL * 7.35/(DMMFVOL + 10)) 0.013 ] * (VOL + FC) ) / 100


Calculate the weight percent oxygen in the

fuel:
5/8/12 O2 = 100 - Ash - S - H2 - C - Moisture - N2

Analysis Examples
ULTIMATE ANALYSIS Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Sulfur Oxygen Ash Total As Received 4.53 31.20 0.35 0.65 22.08 41.19 100.00 Dry 3.49 36.07 0.40 0.75 11.67 47.62 100.00 5/8/12 100.00 Dry Ash-Free 6.67 68.88 0.77 1.44 22.24

Contd.
ULTIMATE ANALYSIS Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Sulfur Oxygen Ash Total As Received 4.53 31.20 0.35 0.65 22.08 41.19 100.00 Dry 3.49 36.07 0.40 0.75 11.67 47.62 100.00
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Dry Ash-Free 6.67 68.88 0.77 1.44 22.24

100.00

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