You are on page 1of 83

Section 1

Microprocessors course Dr. S.O.Fatemi By: Mahdi Hassanpour


Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Contents:
Introduction Block Diagram and Pin Description of the 8051 Registers Some Simple Instructions Structure of Assembly language and Running an 8051 program Memory mapping in 8051 8051 Flag bits and the PSW register Addressing Modes 16-bit, BCD and Signed Arithmetic in 8051 Stack in the 8051 LOOP and JUMP Instructions CALL Instructions I/O Port Programming

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Introduction
General-purpose microprocessor
CPU for Computers No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself ExampleIntels x86, Motorolas 680x0

CPU GeneralPurpose Microprocessor

Data Bus

Many chips on mothers board

RAM

ROM

I/O Port

Timer

Serial COM Port

Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System


Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Microcontroller :
A smaller computer On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... ExampleMotorolas 6811, Intels 8051, Zilogs Z8 and PIC 16X

CPU

RAM ROM

A single chip
I/O Port
Serial Timer COM Port Microcontroller
Mahdi Hassanpour

Monday, May 14, 2012

Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller


Microprocessor CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. expansive versatility general-purpose Microcontroller CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports for applications in which cost, power and space are critical single-purpose

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Embedded System
Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application. An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only. In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM. Exampleprinter, keyboard, video game player

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Three criteria in Choosing a Microcontroller


1. meeting the computing needs of the task efficiently and cost effectively speed, the amount of ROM and RAM, the number of I/O ports and timers, size, packaging, power consumption easy to upgrade cost per unit 2. availability of software development tools assemblers, debuggers, C compilers, emulator, simulator, technical support 3. wide availability and reliable sources of the microcontrollers.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Block Diagram
External interrupts Interrupt Control On-chip ROM for program code
Timer/Counter

On-chip RAM

Timer 1 Timer 0

Counter Inputs

CPU
Serial Port

OSC

Bus Control

4 I/O Ports

P0 P1 P2 P3

TxD RxD

Address/Data
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Comparison of the 8051 Family Members

Feature 8051 ROM (program space in bytes) 4K RAM (bytes) 128 Timers 2 I/O pins 32 Serial port 1 Interrupt sources 6

8052 8K 256 3 32 1 8

8031 0K 128 2 32 1 6

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Pin Description of the 8051


PDIP/Cerdip
P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 RST (RXD)P3.0 (TXD)P3.1 (INT0)P3.2 (INT1)P3.3 (T0)P3.4 (T1)P3.5 (WR)P3.6 (RD)P3.7 XTAL2 XTAL1 GND
Monday, May 14, 2012

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

8051 (8031)

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21

Vcc P0.0(AD0) P0.1(AD1) P0.2(AD2) P0.3(AD3) P0.4(AD4) P0.5(AD5) P0.6(AD6) P0.7(AD7) EA/VPP ALE/PROG PSEN P2.7(A15) P2.6(A14) P2.5(A13) P2.4(A12) P2.3(A11) P2.2(A10) P2.1(A9) P2.0(A8)

Mahdi Hassanpour

Pins of 80511/4
Vccpin 40 Vcc provides supply voltage to the chip. The voltage source is +5V. GNDpin 20ground XTAL1 and XTAL2pins 19,18 These 2 pins provide external clock. Way 1using a quartz crystal oscillator Way 2using a TTL oscillator Example 4-1 shows the relationship between XTAL and the machine cycle.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Pins of 80512/4
RSTpin 9reset It is an input pin and is active highnormally low. The high pulse must be high at least 2 machine cycles. It is a power-on reset. Upon applying a high pulse to RST, the microcontroller will reset and all values in registers will be lost. Reset values of some 8051 registers Way 1Power-on reset circuit Way 2Power-on reset with debounce

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Pins of 80513/4
/EApin 31external access There is no on-chip ROM in 8031 and 8032 . The /EA pin is connected to GND to indicate the code is stored externally. /PSEN ALE are used for external ROM. For 8051, /EA pin is connected to Vcc. / means active low. /PSENpin 29program store enable This is an output pin and is connected to the OE pin of the ROM. See Chapter 14.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Pins of 80514/4
ALEpin 30address latch enable It is an output pin and is active high. 8051 port 0 provides both address and data. The ALE pin is used for de-multiplexing the address and data by connecting to the G pin of the 74LS373 latch. I/O port pins The four ports P0, P1, P2, and P3. Each port uses 8 pins. All I/O pins are bi-directional.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Figure 4-2 (a). XTAL Connection to 8051


Using a quartz crystal oscillator We can observe the frequency on the XTAL2 pin. C2 XTAL2 30pF C1 XTAL1 30pF GND

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Figure 4-2 (b). XTAL Connection to an External Clock Source

N C Using a TTL oscillator XTAL2 is unconnected.


EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR SIGNAL

XTAL2

XTAL1

GND

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Example :
Find the machine cycle for (a) XTAL = 11.0592 MHz (b) XTAL = 16 MHz. Solution:
(a) 11.0592 MHz / 12 = 921.6 kHz; machine cycle = 1 / 921.6 kHz = 1.085 s (b) 16 MHz / 12 = 1.333 MHz; machine cycle = 1 / 1.333 MHz = 0.75 s

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

RESET Value of Some 8051 Registers:

Register PC ACC B PSW SP DPTR RAM are all zero.


Monday, May 14, 2012

Reset Value 0000 0000 0000 0000 0007 0000


Mahdi Hassanpour

Figure 4-3 (a). Power-On RESET Circuit


Vcc

+ 10 uF 30 pF 11.0592 MHz 8.2 K 30 pF 18 X2 9 RST 31 EA/VPP X1

19

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Figure 4-3 (b). Power-On RESET with Debounce


Vcc

31 10 uF 30 pF

EA/VPP X1

X2 RST 9 8.2 K

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Pins of I/O Port


The 8051 has four I/O ports Port 0 pins 32-39P0P0.0P0.7 Port 1pins 1-8 P1P1.0P1.7 Port 2pins 21-28P2P2.0P2.7 Port 3pins 10-17P3P3.0P3.7 Each port has 8 pins. Named P0.X X=0,1,...,7, P1.X, P2.X, P3.X ExP0.0 is the bit 0LSBof P0 ExP0.7 is the bit 7MSBof P0 These 8 bits form a byte. Each port can be used as input or output (bi-direction).
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Registers
A B R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 Some 8051 16-bit Register PC PC DPTR DPH DPL

R7 Some 8-bitt Registers of the 8051

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Some Simple Instructions


MOV dest,source
MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV A,#72H A, #r R4,#62H B,0F9H DPTR,#7634H DPL,#34H DPH,#76H P1,A ;mov A to port 1

; dest = source
;A=72H ;A=r OR 72H ;R4=62H ;B=the content of F9th byte of RAM

Note 1:
MOV A,#72H After instruction MOV MOV A,72H A,72H the content of 72th byte of RAM will replace in Accumulator.

8086
MOV MOV MOV MOV AL,72H AL,r BX,72H AL,[BX]

8051
MOV MOV MOV A,#72H A,#r A,72H

Note 2:
MOV A,R3 MOV A,3

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

ADD A, Source

;A=A+SOURCE

ADD ADD ADD ADD

A,#6 A,R6 A,6 A,0F3H

;A=A+6 ;A=A+R6 ;A=A+[6] or A=A+R6 ;A=A+[0F3H]

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

SETB CLR
SETB SETB SETB SETB SETB
Note:

bit bit
C P0.0 P3.7 ACC.2 05

; bit=1 ; bit=0
; CY=1 ;bit 0 from port 0 =1 ;bit 7 from port 3 =1 ;bit 2 from ACCUMULATOR =1 ;set high D5 of RAM loc. 20h
Bit Addressable Page 359,360

CLR instruction is as same as SETB i.e: CLR C ;CY=0 But following instruction is only for CLR: CLR A ;A=0
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

SUBB
SETB C SUBB A,R5

A,source ;A=A-source-CY
;CY=1 ;A=A-R5-1

ADC
SETB C ADC

A,source ;A=A+source+CY
;CY=1 A,R5 ;A=A+R5+1

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

DEC INC
INC DEC DEC

byte byte
R7 A 40H

;byte=byte-1 ;byte=byte+1

; [40]=[40]-1

CPL
Example:

A
MOV CPL MOV ACALL SJMP

;1s complement
A,#55H ;A=01010101 B A P1,A DELAY L01

L01:

CALL

NOP & RET & RETI


All are like 8086 instructions.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

ANL - ORL - XRL EXAMPLE: MOV R5,#89H ANL R5,#08H RR RL RRC RLC EXAMPLE:
RR
Monday, May 14, 2012

A
Mahdi Hassanpour

Structure of Assembly language and Running an 8051 program


EDITOR PROGRAM

ORG MOV MOV MOV ADD ADD HERE: SJMP END


Monday, May 14, 2012

0H R5,#25H R7,#34H Myfile.lst A,#0 A,R5 A,#12H HERE

Myfile.asm ASSEMBLER PROGRAM Other obj file Myfile.obj LINKER PROGRAM

Myfile.abs
OH PROGRAM Myfile.hex

Mahdi Hassanpour

Memory mapping in 8051


ROM memory map in 8051 family
4k
0000H 0000H

8k
0000H

32k

0FFFH DS5000-32 8751 AT89C51

1FFFH
8752 AT89C52

7FFFH

from Atmel Corporation

from Dallas Semiconductor

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

RAM memory space allocation in the 8051


7FH Scratch pad RAM

30H

2FH
Bit-Addressable RAM 20H 1FH 18H 17H 10H 0FH 08H 07H 00H Register Bank 2 (Stack) Register Bank 1 Register Bank 3

Register Bank 0

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

8051 Flag bits and the PSW register


PSW Register
CY AC F0 RS1 RS0 OV -P

Carry flag Auxiliary carry flag Available to the user for general purpose Register Bank selector bit 1 Register Bank selector bit 0 Overflow flag User define bit Parity flag Set/Reset odd/even parity

PSW.7 PSW.6 PSW.5 PSW.4 PSW.3 PSW.2 PSW.1 PSW.0

CY AC -RS1 RS0 OV -P

RS1 0 0 1 1

RS0 0 1 0 1

Register Bank 0 1 2 3

Address 00H-07H 08H-0FH 10H-17H 18H-1FH

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Instructions that Affect Flag Bits:

Note: X can be 0 or 1

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Example: MOV A,#88H ADD A,#93H


88 +93 ---11B CY=1 AC=0 10001000 +10010011 -------------00011011 P=0

Example: MOV A,#9CH ADD A,#64H


9C +64 ---100 CY=1 AC=1 10011100 +01100100 -------------00000000 P=0

Example: MOV A,#38H ADD A,#2FH 38 +2F ---67 CY=0 AC=1


Monday, May 14, 2012

00111000 +00101111 -------------01100111 P=1


Mahdi Hassanpour

Addressing Modes
Immediate Register Direct Register Indirect Indexed

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Immediate Addressing Mode


MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV A,#65H A,#A R6,#65H DPTR,#2343H P1,#65H

Example : Num MOV MOV ORG data1: EQU 30

R0,Num DPTR,#data1 100H db IRAN

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Register Addressing Mode


MOV ADD MOV Rn, A A, Rn DPL, R6 ;n=0,..,7

MOV MOV

DPTR, A Rm, Rn

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Direct Addressing Mode


Although the entire of 128 bytes of RAM can be accessed using direct addressing mode, it is most often used to access RAM loc. 30 7FH. MOV MOV MOV MOV R0, 40H 56H, A A, 4 6, 2

; MOV A, R4 ; copy R2 to R6 ; MOV R6,R2 is invalid !

SFR register and their address


MOV MOV MOV 0E0H, #66H 0F0H, R2 80H,A ; MOV A,#66H ; MOV B, R2 ; MOV P1,A
Mahdi Hassanpour

Bit Addressable Page 359,360

Monday, May 14, 2012

Register Indirect Addressing Mode


In this mode, register is used as a pointer to the data. A,@Ri @R1,B ; move content of RAM loc.Where address is held by Ri into A ( i=0 or 1 ) MOV MOV

In other word, the content of register R0 or R1 is sources or target in MOV, ADD and SUBB insructions. Example: Write a program to copy a block of 10 bytes from RAM location sterting at 37h to RAM location starting at 59h. Solution: MOV R0,37h MOV R1,59h MOV R2,10 L1: MOV A,@R0 MOV @R1,A INC R0 INC R1 DJNZ R2,L1

; source pointer ; dest pointer ; counter

jump

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Indexed Addressing Mode And On-Chip ROM Access


This mode is widely used in accessing data elements of look-up table entries located in the program (code) space ROM at the 8051 MOVC A,@A+DPTR A= content of address A +DPTR from ROM Note: Because the data elements are stored in the program (code ) space ROM of the 8051, it uses the instruction MOVC instead of MOV. The C means code.
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Example: Assuming that ROM space starting at 250h contains Hello., write a program to transfer the bytes into RAM locations starting at 40h. Solution: ORG 0 MOV DPTR,#MYDATA MOV R0,#40H L1: CLR A MOVC A,@A+DPTR JZ L2 MOV @R0,A INC DPTR INC R0 SJMP L1 L2: SJMP L2 ;------------------------------------ORG 250H MYDATA: DB Hello,0
END Notice the NULL character ,0, as end of string and how we use the JZ instruction to detect that.
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Example: Write a program to get the x value from P1 and send x2 to P2, continuously . Solution: ORG 0 MOV DPTR, #TAB1 MOV A,#0FFH MOV P1,A L01: MOV A,P1 MOVC A,@A+DPTR MOV P2,A SJMP L01 ;---------------------------------------------------ORG 300H TAB1: DB 0,1,4,9,16,25,36,49,64,81 END

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

16-bit, BCD and Signed Arithmetic in 8051


Exercise: Write a program to add n 16-bit number. Get n from port 1. And sent Sum to LCD a) in hex b) in decimal Write a program to subtract P1 from P0 and send result to LCD
(Assume that ACAL DISP display A to LCD )
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

MUL & DIV


MUL MOV MOV MUL MUL MOV MOV MUL
Monday, May 14, 2012

AB A,#25H B,#65H AB AB A,#25 B,#10 AB

;B|A = A*B

;25H*65H=0E99 ;B=0EH, A=99H ;A = A/B, B = A mod B

;A=2, B=5
Mahdi Hassanpour

Stack in the 8051


The register used to access the stack is called SP (stack pointer) register. The stack pointer in the 8051 is only 8 bits wide, which means that it can take value 00 to FFH. When 8051 powered up, the SP register contains value 07.
7FH Scratch pad RAM 30H 2FH

Bit-Addressable RAM
20H 1FH 18H 17H 10H 0FH 08H 07H 00H

Register Bank 3 Register Bank 2 (Stack) Register Bank 1 Register Bank 0

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Example: MOV MOV MOV PUSH PUSH PUSH R6,#25H R1,#12H R4,#0F3H 6 1 4

0BH 0AH 09H 08H Start SP=07H

0BH 0AH 09H 08H 25

0BH 0AH 09H 08H 12 25

0BH 0AH 09H 08H F3 12 25

SP=08H

SP=09H

SP=08H

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

LOOP and JUMP Instructions


DJNZ:
Write a program to clear ACC, then add 3 to the accumulator ten time Solution: MOV MOV AGAIN: ADD DJNZ MOV A,#0; R2,#10 A,#03 R2,AGAING ;repeat until R2=0 (10 times) R5,A

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Other conditional jumps :


JZ
JNZ DJNZ CJNE A,byte CJNE reg,#data JC JNC

Jump if A=0
Jump if A/=0 Decrement and jump if A/=0 Jump if A/=byte Jump if byte/=#data Jump if CY=1 Jump if CY=0

JB
JNB JBC

Jump if bit=1
Jump if bit=0 Jump if bit=1 and clear bit

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

SJMP and LJMP:


LJMP(long jump) LJMP is an unconditional jump. It is a 3-byte instruction in which the first byte is the opcode, and the second and third bytes represent the 16-bit address of the target location. The 20byte target address allows a jump to any memory location from 0000 to FFFFH. SJMP(short jump) In this 2-byte instruction. The first byte is the opcode and the second byte is the relative address of the target location. The relative address range of 00-FFH is divided into forward and backward jumps, that is , within -128 to +127 bytes of memory relative to the address of the current PC.
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

CJNE , JNC
Exercise: Write a program that compare R0,R1. If R0>R1 then send 1 to port 2, else if R0<R1 then send 0FFh to port 2, else send 0 to port 2.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

CALL Instructions
Another control transfer instruction is the CALL instruction, which is used to call a subroutine. LCALL(long call) In this 3-byte instruction, the first byte is the opcode an the second and third bytes are used for the address of target subroutine. Therefore, LCALL can be used to call subroutines located anywhere within the 64K byte address space of the 8051.
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

ACALL (absolute call)


ACALL is 2-byte instruction in contrast to LCALL, which is 13 bytes. Since ACALL is a 2-byte instruction, the target address of the subroutine must be within 2K bytes address because only 11 bits of the 2 bytes are used for the address. There is no difference between ACALL and LCALL in terms of saving the program counter on the stack or the function of the RET instruction. The only difference is that the target address for LCALL can be anywhere within the 64K byte address space of the 8051 while the target address of ACALL must be within a 2Kbyte range.
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

I/O Port Programming


Port 1pins 1-8

Port 1 is denoted by P1. P1.0 ~ P1.7 We use P1 as examples to show the operations on ports. P1 as an output port (i.e., write CPU data to the external pin) P1 as an input port (i.e., read pin data into CPU bus)

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

A Pin of Port 1
Read latch
TB2

Vcc
Load(L1)

Internal CPU bus Write to latch

P1.X
Clk Q

P1.X pin M1

TB1 Read pin

P0.x
8051 IC

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Hardware Structure of I/O Pin


Each pin of I/O ports Internal CPU buscommunicate with CPU A D latch store the value of this pin D latch is controlled by Write to latch Write to latch1write data into the D latch 2 Tri-state buffer TB1: controlled by Read pin Read pin1really read the data present at the pin TB2: controlled by Read latch Read latch1read value from internal latch A transistor M1 gate Gate=0: open Gate=1: close
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Tri-state Buffer
Output Input

Tri-state control (active high)

Low

Highimpedance (open-circuit)

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Writing 1 to Output Pin P1.X


Read latch
TB2

Vcc
Load(L1) 2. output pin is

1. write a 1 to the pin


Internal CPU bus Write to latch
D Q

Vcc 1 0
M1

P1.X
Clk Q

P1.X pin

output 1

TB1 Read pin

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

8051 IC

Writing 0 to Output Pin P1.X


Read latch
TB2

Vcc
Load(L1) 2. output pin is

1. write a 0 to the pin


Internal CPU bus Write to latch
D Q

ground 0 1
M1

P1.X
Clk Q

P1.X pin

output 0

TB1 Read pin

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

8051 IC

Port 1 as OutputWrite to a Port


Send data to Port 1 MOV A,#55H MOV P1,A ACALL DELAY CPL A SJMP BACK

BACK:

Let P1 toggle. You can write to P1 directly.


Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Reading Input v.s. Port Latch


When reading ports, there are two possibilities Read the status of the input pin. from external pin value MOV A, PX JNB P2.1, TARGET ; jump if P2.1 is not set JB P2.1, TARGET ; jump if P2.1 is set Figures C-11, C-12 Read the internal latch of the output port. ANL P1, A ; P1 P1 AND A ORL P1, A ; P1 P1 OR A INC P1 ; increase P1 Figure C-17 Table C-6 Read-Modify-Write Instruction (or Table 8-5) See Section 8.3
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Reading High at Input Pin


Read latch 1. write a 1 to the pin MOV P1,#0FFH Internal CPU bus TB2 Load(L1) 1 1

Vcc

2. MOV A,P1 external pin=High

Q
P1.X

P1.X pin

Write to latch

Clk

M1

TB1 Read pin 3. Read pin=1 Read latch=0 Write to latch=1 8051 IC Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Reading Low at Input Pin


Read latch 1. write a 1 to the pin MOV P1,#0FFH Internal CPU bus TB2 Load(L1) 1 0

Vcc

2. MOV A,P1 external pin=Low

Q
P1.X

P1.X pin

Write to latch

Clk

M1

TB1 Read pin 3. Read pin=1 Read latch=0 Write to latch=1 8051 IC Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Port 1 as InputRead from Port


In order to make P1 an input, the port must be programmed by writing 1 to all the bit. MOV MOV MOV MOV SJMP A,#0FFH P1,A A,P1 P2,A BACK ;A=11111111B ;make P1 an input port ;get data from P0 ;send data to P2

BACK:

To be an input port, P0, P1, P2 and P3 have similar methods.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Instructions For Reading an Input Port


Following are instructions for reading external pins of ports:

Mnemonics MOV A,PX JNB PX.Y,.. JB PX.Y,.. MOV C,PX.Y

Examples MOV A,P2 JNB P2.1,TARGET JB P1.3,TARGET MOV C,P2.4

Description Bring into A the data at P2 pins Jump if pin P2.1 is low Jump if pin P1.3 is high Copy status of pin P2.4 to CY

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Reading Latch
Exclusive-or the Port 1 MOV P1,#55H ;P1=01010101 ORL P1,#0F0H ;P1=11110101 1. The read latch activates TB2 and bring the data from the Q latch into CPU. Read P1.0=0 2. CPU performs an operation. This data is ORed with bit 1 of register A. Get 1. 3. The latch is modified. D latch of P1.0 has value 1. 4. The result is written to the external pin. External pin (pin 1: P1.0) has value 1.
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Reading the Latch


1. Read pin=0 Read latch=1 Write to latch=0 (Assume P1.X=0 initially) Read latch TB2 2. CPU compute P1.X OR 1 0 Internal CPU bus 1 Write to latch 3. write result to latch Read pin=0 Read latch=0 Write to latch=1 Load(L1) 0 1 4. P1.X=1 P1.X pin

Vcc

Q
P1.X

0 M1

Clk

TB1 Read pin

8051 IC Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Read-modify-write Feature
Read-modify-write Instructions Table C-6 This features combines 3 actions in a single instruction 1. CPU reads the latch of the port 2. CPU perform the operation 3. Modifying the latch 4. Writing to the pin Note that 8 pins of P1 work independently.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Port 1 as InputRead from latch


Exclusive-or the Port 1 MOV P1,#55H ;P1=01010101 AGAIN: XOR P1,#0FFH ;complement ACALL DELAY SJMP AGAIN Note that the XOR of 55H and FFH gives AAH. XOR of AAH and FFH gives 55H. The instruction read the data in the latch (not from the pin). The instruction result will put into the latch and the pin.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Read-Modify-Write Instructions
Mnemonics
ANL ORL XRL JBC PX.Y, TARGET CPL INC DEC DJNZ PX, TARGET

Example
ANL P1,A ORL P1,A XRL P1,A JBC P1.1, TARGET CPL P1.2 INC P1 DEC P1 DJNZ P1,TARGET

MOV PX.Y,C
CLR PX.Y SETB PX.Y
Monday, May 14, 2012

MOV P1.2,C
CLR P1.3 SETB P1.4
Mahdi Hassanpour

You are able to answer this Questions:


How to write the data to a pin How to read the data from the pin Read the value present at the external pin. Why we need to set the pin first Read the value come from the latchnot from the external pin. Why the instruction is called read-modify write?

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Other Pins
P1, P2, and P3 have internal pull-up resisters. P1, P2, and P3 are not open drain. P0 has no internal pull-up resistors and does not connects to Vcc inside the 8051. P0 is open drain. Compare the figures of P1.X and P0.X. However, for a programmer, it is the same to program P0, P1, P2 and P3. All the ports upon RESET are configured as output.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

A Pin of Port 0
Read latch
TB2

Internal CPU bus Write to latch

P1.X
Clk Q

P0.X pin M1

TB1 Read pin

P1.x
8051 IC

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Port 0pins 32-39


P0 is an open drain. Open drain is a term used for MOS chips in the same way that open collector is used for TTL chips. When P0 is used for simple data I/O we must connect it to external pull-up resistors. Each pin of P0 must be connected externally to a 10K ohm pull-up resistor. With external pull-up resistors connected upon reset, port 0 is configured as an output port.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Port 0 with Pull-Up Resistors


Vcc
10 K

P0.0 DS5000 P0.1 P0.2 8751 P0.3 P0.4 8951 P0.5 P0.6 P0.7

Port 0

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Dual Role of Port 0


When connecting an 8051/8031 to an external memory, the 8051 uses ports to send addresses and read instructions. 8031 is capable of accessing 64K bytes of external memory. 16-bit addressP0 provides both address A0-A7, P2 provides address A8-A15. Also, P0 provides data lines D0-D7. When P0 is used for address/data multiplexing, it is connected to the 74LS373 to latch the address. There is no need for external pull-up resistors as shown in Chapter 14.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

74LS373
PSEN ALE P0.0 P0.7
G D

74LS373

OE OC A0 A7

D0 EA P2.0 P2.7
Monday, May 14, 2012

D7

A8 A15
Mahdi Hassanpour

8051

ROM

Reading ROM (1/2)


PSEN ALE P0.0 P0.7 Address D0 EA P2.0 P2.7 D7 1. Send address to ROM 2. 74373 latches the address and send to OE ROM OC G 74LS373 A0
D

A7

A8 A12

8051
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

ROM

Reading ROM (2/2)


PSEN ALE P0.0 P0.7 2. 74373 latches the address and send to ROM
G D

74LS373

OE OC A0 A7

Address

D0 EA P2.0 P2.7
Monday, May 14, 2012

D7 3. ROM send the instruction back A8 A12


Mahdi Hassanpour

8051

ROM

ALE Pin
The ALE pin is used for de-multiplexing the address and data by connecting to the G pin of the 74LS373 latch.
When ALE=0, P0 provides data D0-D7. When ALE=1, P0 provides address A0-A7. The reason is to allow P0 to multiplex address and data.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Port 2pins 21-28


Port 2 does not need any pull-up resistors since it already has pull-up resistors internally. In an 8031-based system, P2 are used to provide address A8-A15.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Mahdi Hassanpour

Port 3pins 10-17


Port 3 does not need any pull-up resistors since it already has pull-up resistors internally. Although port 3 is configured as an output port upon reset, this is not the way it is most commonly used. Port 3 has the additional function of providing signals. Serial communications signalRxD, TxDChapter 10 External interrupt/INT0, /INT1Chapter 11 Timer/counterT0, T1Chapter 9 External memory accesses in 8031-based system/WR, /RDChapter 14
Monday, May 14, 2012 Mahdi Hassanpour

Port 3 Alternate Functions


P3 Bit
P3.0 P3.1 P3.2 P3.3 P3.4 P3.5 P3.6 P3.7
Monday, May 14, 2012

Function
RxD TxD INT0 INT1 T0 T1 WR RD
Mahdi Hassanpour

Pin
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17