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AMR Adaptive Multi Rate Training

Training Document
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AMR Course Objectives


After this course, participants are able to :

Know how AMR works The purpose and planning aspects of the feature Understanding of AMR parameters Inter-working of AMR with other features HW/SW requirements for AMR Impact of AMR on network performance

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Table of Contents
AMR Introduction AMR Benefits

AMR Codecs
Nokia AMR Link Adaptation and codec mode adaptation Nokia AMR interaction with other Nokia features AMR support in Nokia system Nokia AMR parameter Nokia AMR KPI Nokia AMR planning aspects AMR implementation

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AMR Introduction

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Hard/Soft Blocking
Hard blocking The whole radio resource is in use - no more calls can be established due to lack of free radio timeslots.

Dominates with large reuse factors = Wideband deployment

Soft blocking The capacity of individual cells is limited by the level of the interference rather than the number of TRXs available

Is dominating with tight reuse patterns = Narrowband deployments

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Adaptive Multi-Rate Codec (1/2)


Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) codec consists of a family of codecs (source and channel codecs with different trade-off bit-rates) operating in the GSM FR and HR channels modes The AMR system exploits the channel performance and robustness added by the coding rates by adapting the speech and channel coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel AMR adapts its error protection level (select its optimum channel mode and codec mode) to the local radio channel and traffic load conditions to deliver the best possible combination of speech quality and system capacity Codec mode adaptation for AMR is based on received channel quality estimation in both MS and BTS, followed by a decision on the most appropriate speech and channel codec mode to apply at a given time The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by BSC via layer 3 signaling MS shall support all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to 4 speech codec modes is used during a call
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Adaptive Multi Rate Codec (2/2)


GSM FR/EFR channel gross bit-rate is 22.8 kbit/s in GSM FR/EFR: 13 kbit/s speech coding and 9.8 kbit/channel coding (HR channel gross bit rate 11.4 kbit/s) For AMR case, different codecs use different bit rate to encode speech (source coding). The rest of the gross bit-rate is used for channel protection
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Channel bit-rate (kbit/s)

20

Channel coding Speech coding

Robustness
15 10 5 0
FR 12.2 FR 10.2 FR FR 7.4 FR 6.7 FR 5.9 FR 7.95 5.15 FR 4.75 HR HR 7.4 HR 6.7 HR 5.9 HR 7.95 5.15 HR 4.75

Speech Qual
AMR codec mode

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Algorithms Related to AMR


In order to select the codec, MS and infrastructure vendors implement the Link Adaptation algorithm or Codec Mode Adaptation Additionally, there is another algorithm to change the channel rate between FR and HR codecs, which is called Channel Mode Adaptation

Set of Codecs

Codec Mode Adapt.

Channel Mode Adaptation

AMR

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AMR Benefits

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Capacity and Coverage Gain


Link level results show very high improvement in the terms of TCH FER when robust AMR modes are used As high as 6 dB improvement at 1% FER in C/I can be achieved Therefore, high capacity gain can be expected when robust AMR modes are utilized In addition, increased robustness to channel errors can be utilized in the cell coverage, i.e. lower C/I can be allowed at the cell edge However, in the mixed traffic case the cell coverage has to be planned according to EFR mobiles With respect to signaling channels, the retransmissions schemes used by SACCH and FACCH channels maintain the probability of signalling success even for very degraded conditions

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Improved BCCH Plan


Since the average C/I found in a cell area can be measurably less than that used in a non-AMR network and still provide comparable quality to EFR, the existing clean BCCH layer can be tightened, potentially releasing frequencies to be used on the non-BCCH layer This offers improved speech quality and extra capacity for TCH, especially in the narrow band deployment (frequency band less than 5 MHz) However, if EFR roaming mobiles are to be taken care of, the BCCH will have to be planned accordingly How to plan networks to ensure the quality for the old EFR mobiles? One method is to use more aggressive power adjustment for AMR mobiles in order to decrease the average interference level in the network Due to better error correction capability against the channel errors lower C/I target can be set for AMR mobiles hence lower PC thresholds can be used Therefore, the overall interference decreases in the network (smaller average transmission power) and thus the quality of the existing EFR connections increase
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Half-Rate Utilization in AMR Codec


Half-rate is an efficient way to increase capacity in the case of limited number of TRXs per cell AMR HR codec obtains remarkable better speech quality than previous GSM EFR HR codec AMR FR obtains better quality than AMR HR only when higher FR modes than 7.4 are used (due to higher number of speech coding bits) AMR FR 7.4 kbit/s mode and AMR HR 7.4 kbit/s mode have the same speech quality when the C/I is high (error free case) AMR HR channels can be then used in high C/I conditions without noticeably speech quality loss In theory for ideal frequency hopping about 11-12 dB C/I is required for AMR HR to obtain the evaluated good speech quality limit (in real networks, depending on the BTS configuration and on FH mode used, it might be necessary 1-4 dB higher) Based on this, all connections having at least 12 dB C/I could be handed over to HR channel remaining the good speech quality

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Benefits For End User


MOS vs. CIR
Speech Quality Gains
4.5

4
3.5 3 MOS 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 C/I (dB) FR 12.2 MOS FR 7.4 MOS FR 5.9 MOS FR 4.75 MOS HR 7.4 MOS HR 5.9 MOS HR 4.75 MOS

A user in good radio conditions perceives the same quality as EFR. However, a user in bad radio conditions still receives acceptable speech quality while with EFR it would not received satisfactory speech quality.

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Benefits For Operator


100%
fs475iFH

Capacity / Coverage Gains

fs515iFH fs590iFH fs670iFH fs740iFH fs795iFH fs102iFH fs122iFH

10%
TCH FER

1%

0% 10 8 6 C/I [dB] 4 2 0

Approx. 5.5 dB link level gain in hopping layer This turns into approx. 140% capacity gain for AMR-FR Coverage enhancement (>4dB) Tighter BCCH reuse schemes. Saving of resources by deploying AMR-HR
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Benefits of AMR Summary


Speech quality enhancement: AMR maintains good speech quality in the situation where the connection faces low C/I or low signal level Capacity and coverage gain: Link level simulation results illustrated improvement in terms of TCH FER (up to 5.5dB at 1% FER in C/I) Signalling channel performance: due to retransmissions schemes used by these channels the probability of signalling success maintain very high even for very degraded conditions Improved BCCH plan: tighter frequency reuse or better quality with same frequency reuse, potentially releasing frequencies to be used on the nonBCCH layer. HR utilisation increases the hardware capacity of the cell since two half-rate connections can be allocated to fill only one timeslot. When compare AMR HR to previous GSM HR codec, it is noticed that AMR HR obtains remarkable better speech quality

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AMR Codecs

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AMR Codecs
Voice quality Full Rate Half rate

EFR 12.2
10.2 7.95 7.95 7.4 7.4 6.7 6.7 5.9 5.9

AMR codecs: 8 for FR and 6 for HR

AMR Full Rate performance compared to Full Rate EFR in Clean Speech MOS (Mean Opinion Score) 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0
1.0 No Errors

6 dB gain in performance
EFR AMR FR
16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I 10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I 4 dB C/I

Robustness

5.15 5.15 4.75 4.75 of codecs

New AMR family tolerates 6 dB higher interference than current Speech bit rate GSM EFR codec

AMR Half Rate performance compared to Full Rate in Clean Speech MOS (Mean Opinion Score) Quality loss 5.0 of ~ 0.2 between AMR HR and FR 4.0 3.0 2.0 AMR HR AMR FR
4 dB C/I

Can be directly utilized for higher capacity with Frequency Hopping Higher interference tolerance Reduced time slot occupancy
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1.0 No Errors 19 dB C/I 16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I 10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I

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Channel and Speech Codecs for AMR


Channel Channel mode codec Mode CH0-FS CH1-FS CH2-FS TCH/FR CH3-FS CH4-FS CH5-FS CH6-FS CH7-FS CH8-HS TCH/HR CH9-HS CH10-HS CH11-HS CH12-HS 12.20kbit/s (GSMEFR) 10.20 kbit/s 7.95 kbit/s 7.40 kbit/s (IS-641) 6.70 kbit/s 5.90 kbit/s 5.15 kbit/s 4.75 kbit/s 7.95 kbit/s (*) 7.40 kbit/s (IS-641) 6.70 kbit/s 5.90 kbit/s 5.15 kbit/s Source coding bit-rate, speech Net bitrate, inband channel 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s Channel coding bit-rate, speech 10.20 kbit/s 12.20 kbit/s 14.45 kbit/s 15.00 kbit/s 15.70 kbit/s 16.50 kbit/s 17.25 kbit/s 17.65 kbit/s 3.25 kbit/s 3.80 kbit/s 4.50 kbit/s 5.30 kbit/s 6.05 kbit/s Channel coding bit-rate, in-band 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s

CH13-HS 4.75 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 6.45 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s (*) Requires 16 kbit/s TRAU. Therefore it is not seen as a feasible codec mode and will not be supported by Nokia BSS10.

In high-error conditions more bits are used for error correction to obtain error robust coding, while in good transmission conditions a lower amount of bits is needed for sufficient error protection and more bits can therefore be allocated for source coding
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Nokia AMR Link Adaptation

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Link Adaptation in AMR Codec (1/2)


Link Adaptation is the capability of AMR feature to vary the codec used according to the link conditions Both network, for uplink, and MS, for downlink, measure the radio conditions in each link and take decisions on which codec should be applied to each way AMR codec mode adaption is done independently in UL and DL There are two link adaptation (LA) modes; the ETSI specified fast LA and the Nokia proprietary slow LA slowAmrLaEnabled(SAL): if it is set to "N" (default) it is used ETSI fast LA; if it is set to "Y" it used Nokia slow LA With slow LA, BTS allows in-band codec mode changes only on the SACCH frame interval of 480 ms and this option give better flexibility with HO & PC algorithms Two different types of link adaptation algorithms are defined: Codec Mode Adaptation and Channel Mode Adaptation AMR codec mode adaptation algorithm adapts the bit-rate partitioning between the speech and channel coding for a given channel mode to track changes in the radio link and to account for specific input conditions (speech signal characteristics, acoustic environmental characteristics, etc.) AMR channel mode adaptation algorithm allocates a half-rate or full-rate channel according to channel quality and the traffic load on the cell in order to obtain the best balance between quality and capacity
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Link Adaptation in AMR Codec (2/2)


C/I
30 C/I EFR operation AMR mode

AMR Mode

25

12.2 kbit/s

AMR FR HR 12.2

20

7.95 kbit/s

[dB]

10.2
15
6.70 kbit/s

7.95 7.4 6.7 7.4 6.7

10

5.90 kbit/s

5.9
5.15
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

5.9
5.15 4.75

0 Time[s]

4.75

speec h codin 21 NOKIA g

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chan. codin g

Codec Mode Adaptation

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Codec Mode Adaptation


Codec Mode Adaptation or Link Adaptation (LA) is the algorithm that selects which codec has to be used each moment by the MS (in UL) or by the network (in DL direction). The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by BSC via layer 3 signalling Both the MS and the network implement their own independent LA algorithms LA algorithms are vendor dependant / proprietary

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Objective of Codec Mode Adaptation


Select the codec that provides the best speech quality depending on radio conditions
4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

MOS

FR 12.2 MOS FR 7.4 MOS FR 5.9 MOS FR 4.75 MOS HR 7.4 MOS HR 5.9 MOS HR 4.75 MOS

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

C/I (dB)

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Procedure for Codec Mode Adaptation


4.-DL codec used 3.- Network decides which codec to use for DL

DL LA
1.-Which DL Radio Conditions?

2.-Request a codec for DL

UL LA

2.-Command a codec for UL

1.-Which UL radio conditions?


3.-MS uses the codec commanded by the network for UL

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Functionality
Channel quality estimation calculation (or Link Quality Estimation, LQE) and codec proposal are proprietary Maximum codec change rate: every other speech frame (40ms) The network can override MS's codec requests Inband signaling is more robust than speech codecs
MS BSS

Transcoder

UL Channel Quality DL Codec Proposal UL Adaptation UL codec command DL Channel Quality

16 or 8 16 or kbit/s 8 kbit/s DL Adaptation

DL codec

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Parameters for Link Adaptation


When deploying AMR the following parameters are important for the Link Adaptation: ACS (Active Codec Set) which defines the codecs that can be used in a BTS during a call. Thresholds used: Defines the CIR value to change the codec from a less robust codec to the immediate more robust one in the ACS Hysteresis: the values in dB to add to the thresholds in order to go from a robust codec to the immediate less robust one in the ACS. For instance: ACS= [AFS12.2, AFS7.9, AFS4.75], Thresholds: 12dB, 8dB, Hysteresis: 1dB, 1dB With these settings the change from codec AFS7.9 to AFS4.75 will happen when the CIR is below 8dB, while from AFS4.75 up to AFS7.9 it will be with 9dB.

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In band signalling

SF 2

SF 4CMR SF 6 CMR SF 3

CMR

CMR CMI CMI

CMR CMI

CMR CMI

CMR

CMR CMI

UL

SF 1

CMI SF 5 CMI SF 7 CMI

CMI

8 TDMA frames SF 2 CMI SF 4 CMI SF 6 CMI SF 8 CMI

CMI

CMI CMC CMC

CMI CMC

CMI CMC

CMI CMC

DL

SF 1

SF 3

SF CMCSF 5 CMC 7 CMC SF 9 CMC

SF= Speech Frame CMC = Codec Mode Command CMI = Codec Mode Indicator
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time

CMR= Codec ModeRequest

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Impact of wrong LA
Due to wrong LA threshold selection, or wrong estimation of radio conditions, the codec used under certain conditions might not be the best performing one, reducing Speech Quality.
non-ideal LA 1 (Lower MOS & HIGH FER) non-ideal LA 2 (Lower MOS & low FER)

AFS475 AFS7.90

AFS12.2

Actual CIR for codec changes for LA 1


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Ideal CIR for codec changes


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Actual CIR for codec changes for LA 2

Channel Mode Adaptation

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Channel Mode Adaptation


Channel Mode Adaptation is an HO algorithm that aims at select the correct channel rate (FR or HR). The selection of the channel rate depends on 2 main factors: load and quality

Codec

load

Good Quality

FR FR

packing unpacking Bad Quality

HR

HR

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Packing Procedure

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Channel mode adaptation: Packing


Handover between AMR FR and AMR HR is intra-cell handover Spontaneous packing of FR AMR calls to HR AMR calls is triggered when the cell load is high enough, the number of free full rate resources reduces below the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL). Packing continues until the cell load is low enough, the number of free full rate resources increases above the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU).
Free FR TCHs Upper limit for free FR TCHs btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRU)

Lower limit for free FR TCHs btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRL) Time No packing of AMR FR calls Packing of AMR FR calls No packing of AMR FR calls

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Packing from AMR FR to AMR HR (1/2)


Spontaneous Packing of AMR FR to AMR HR call is triggered when

free full rate resources reduces below the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRL) or btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (FRL)

HRL is a BSC level parameter FRL is a BTS level parameter, once defined, it can overwrite HRL

AND FR calls which quality is above the amrHandoverFr(IHRF) for both UL and DL AND they are using the least robust codec mode for both UL and DL

Intra HO threshold Rx qual for AMR FR, Px, Nx: the parameter compares the averaged values of signal quality downlink and uplink measurements for triggering the intra-cell handover process for a AMR FR call in order to switch it to a AMR HR call
Rx qual: Threshold level for a handover process. Px: The Px parameter of Threshold qual uplink Rx qual (QUR) is used. Nx: The parameter of Threshold qual unplink Rx qual (QUR) is used.

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Packing from AMR FR to AMR HR (2/2)


Packing happens to permanent HR channels Packing happens to DR channels which half has been occupied Packing happens when there are even number of FR calls to DR channels.

Packing continues until the number of free full rate resources increases above the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU) or btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (FRU) HRU is a BSC level parameter FRU is a BTS level parameter, once defined, it can overwrite HRU Queueing is not allowed for packing procedure

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Un-Packing Procedure

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Unpacking from AMR HR to FR


Spontaneous unpacking of AMR HR calls to AMR FR calls is triggered when the quality of a AMR HR call degrades below the amrHandoverHr(IHRH) for either UL or DL Intra HO threshold Rx quality for AMR HR, Px, Nx. The parameter compares the averaged values of signal quality downlink and uplink measurements for tringgering the intra-cell handover process for a AMR HR call in order to switch it to a AMR FR call

Rx qual: Threshold level for a handover process, Rx qual range: 0..7. Px: The Px parameter of Threshold qual uplink Rx qual (QUR) is used Nx: The Nx parameter of Threshold qual uplink Rx qual (QUR) is used

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Radio Link Timeout Background


3GPP 05.08 states that Radio Link Failure (RLF) in the MS is determined by the success rate of decoding messages on the downlink SACCH The aim of determining RLF in the MS is to ensure that calls with unacceptable voice/data quality, which cannot be improved either by RF power control or handover, are either re-established or released in a defined manner The Radio Link Timeout (RLT) parameter controls that a forced release (drop) will not normally occur until the call has degraded to a quality below that at which the majority of subscribers would have manually released it The RLF procedure is implemented in the RRM at the BSC and is as follows: After the assignment of a dedicated channel a counter is initialized to RLT When a SACCH message is unsuccessfully decoded the counter is decreased by 1 When a SACCH message is successfully decoded the counter is increased by 2 If the counter reaches 0 a RLF is declared Call is released

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Radio Link Timeout AMR-FR vs. EFR Test 2


Aim is to evaluate when AMR-FR is used which RLT value will result in comparable performance (point at which call is released) to the recommended RLT for EFR The RLT is based on SACCH erased frames, which are independent of speech frames. The principle of the tests is to find RLT value producing the same speech degradation (FER > 15 % MOS < 1.5 no audible speech during 30 sec before dropping) in AMR as EFR would suffer with default RLT value for this traffic (i.e. 20) The driving route started at a good coverage location and ended at a bad coverage area

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AMR vs EFR: FER Before Dropping


RLT 20
100 90 80 70 100 90 80 70

RLT 28

FER (%)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 to 25 25 to 20 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 5 to 0 seconds before dropping EFR AMR

FER (%)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 to 25 25 to 20 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 5 to 0 seconds before dropping EFR AMR

RLT 32
100 90 80 70 100 90 80 70

RLT 36

FER (%)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 to 25 25 to 20 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 5 to 0 seconds before dropping EFR AMR

FER (%)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 to 25 25 to 20 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 5 to 0 seconds before dropping EFR AMR

FER average every 5 seconds, during last 30 seconds before dropping for: RLT = 20, 28, 32, 36
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Dropped Call Experience


Dropped call experience: how long terminal does not receive any audible speech (MOS<1.5) before it drops During 30 seconds before dropping, FERAMR is lower than FEREFR FEREFR > 15 % during last 30 seconds before dropping, for RLT = 20
AMR, FER > 15 % RLT = 20 RLT = 28 RLT = 32 RLT = 36 RLT = xx 10-15 seconds before dropping 15-20 seconds before dropping 18-22 seconds before dropping 25-30 seconds before dropping 35-40 s. before drop EFR, FER > 15% 25-30 s. before drop

Conclusion: AMRRLT=36 has a similar dropped call experience to EFRRLT=20


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AMR Support in Nokia System

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Elements Needed for AMR Feature


Following network elements and mobile phone are needed to get AMR system feature to work: BTS: Nokia Talk-Family DF6, Nokia Prime Site DF6, Nokia MetroSite CXM3.0-2, Nokia Ultra Site CX3, Connect Site. S10.5 TCSM: TCSM2 with an AMR capable pool (23) MSC: M10 NMS: NetAct OSS3.1 MS: AMR capable phones

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AMR Support in Nokia BTS's


Nokia 2nd nd Generation BTS (DE21 BTS:)
Nokia's Nokia's

generation BTS will not support AMR.


TALK-family BTS: Full Rate Half rate

Nokia Talk-family BTS (DF34 BTS):

Nokia PrimeSite BTS:


Nokia

Talk-family BTS will have AMR support for FR modes 4.75, 5.9, 7.4 and 12.2 as well as for HR modes 4.75, 5.9 and 7.4 (*). With this approach, the link adaptation between full scale of FR modes and almost full scale of HR can be achieved (note that only 4 codecs can be selected to be used during a call). PrimeSite will have same AMR support as Talk. The frequency hopping functionality will be removed from PrimeSite BTSs to enable this modification. Last PrimeSite SW release supporting frequency hopping will be DF5.0.

12.2
10.2 7.95 7.95

7.4
6.7

7.4
6.7

5.9
5.15

5.9
5.15

4.75

4.75

Nokia InSite BTS:


Nokia
Nokia's

InSite BTS will not support AMR


MetroSite and UltraSite will have full AMR support.

Nokia MetroSite and UltraSite BTS:

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Nokia AMR Parameters

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Link Adaptation Related Parameters

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Steps to configure Link Adaptation


First, selection of the Active Codec Set (codecs to be used during the calls for both FR and HR). FRC & HRC parameter Then, selection of CIR thresholds (FRT1..FRT3 & HRT1.HRT3 )to change codecs and hysteresis (FRH1..FRH3 & HRH1HRH3) Selection of the initial codec to be used at the beginning of the allocation ICMI- FRI=0: Initial codec mode is defined by the implict rule provided in GSM 05.09 =1: Initial codec mode is defined by the Start Mode field. FRS ( AMR FR START MODE) ICMI-HRI HRS (AMR HR START MODE) Selection of standard Link Adaptation (every 40 ms) or Slow Link Adaptation (every 480ms) (SLA)

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Link Adaptation Related Parameters


BTS level parameters
Q3 NAME amrConfigurationFr: codecModeSet amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis1 amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis2 amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis3 amrConfigurationFr: initCodecMode amrConfigurationFr: startMode amrConfigurationFr: threshold1 amrConfigurationFr: threshold2 amrConfigurationFr: threshold3 amrConfigurationHr: codecModeSet amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis1 amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis2 amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis3 amrConfigurationHr: initCodecMode amrConfigurationHr: startMode amrConfigurationHr: threshold1 amrConfigurationHr: threshold2 amrConfigurationHr: threshold3 Acronymn FRC FRH1 FRH2 FRH3 ICMI(FRI) FRS FRT1 FRT2 FRT3 HRC HRH1 HRH2 HRH3 ICMI(HRI) HRS HRT1 HRT2 HRT3 RANGE UNIT MML EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ 0-31.5dB EQ 0-31.5dB EQ 0-31.5dB EQ kbit/s EQ 0-7.5dB EQ 0-7.5dB EQ 0-7.5dB EQ EQ EQ dB EQ dB EQ dB EQ kbit/s 0-7.5dB 0-7.5dB 0-7.5dB MML Default 12.2 7.40 5.9 4.75 2 2 2 0 0 8 14 22 7.40 5.90 4.75 2 2 0 0 0 22 28 0

0 0 0 0

... 15 ... 15 ... 15 / 1 00, 01, 10,11 0 ... 63 0 ... 63 0 ... 63 0 0 0 0 ... 15 ... 15 ... 15 / 1 00, 01, 10,11 0 ... 63 0 ... 63 0 ... 63

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Definition of the Active Codec Set


amrConfigurationFr: codecModeSet (FRC) & amrConfigurationHr: codecModeSet (HRC)
Codecs supported in different BTS models BTS 2nd Generat Talk Family Metro & Ultrasite AMR FR AFS 475, AFS590, AFS740, AFS122 All codecs AMR-HR AHS475, AHS 590, AHS 740 All exepct AHS790

Maximum of 4 codecs can be included in ACS, although it can be less (or even disable) Values Range: 0..240 (0 or 1-4 values Range: 0..30 (0 or 1-4 values from
from these: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 & 128) 0 (0000 0000) = disabled 1 (0000 0001) = 4.75 kbit/s 2 (0000 0010) = 5.15 kbit/s 4 (0000 0100) = 5.90 kbit/s 8 (0000 1000) = 6.70 kbit/s 16 (0001 0000) = 7.40 kbit/s 32 (0010 0000) = 7.95 kbit/s 64 (0100 0000) = 10.2 kbit/s 128 (1000 0000) = 12.2 kbit/s Example (default) 1001 0101 = (4.75, 5.90, 7.40 & 12.2) these: 1, 2, 4, 8 & 16) 0 (0000 0000) 1 (0000 0001) 2 (0000 0010) 4 (0000 0100) 8 (0000 1000) 16 (0001 0000) = disabled = 4.75 kbit/s = 5.15 kbit/s = 5.90 kbit/s = 6.70 kbit/s = 7.40 kbit/s

0001 0101 = (4.75, 5.90 & 7.40)

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Codec mode adaptation: Threshold and hysteresis


Both Threshold and hysteresis has 0.5 dB step One threshold to go from one codec to the closest higher or lower one FR Example:

AFS122, C/I < 11 dB, AFS122 AFS740

AFS740, C/I > 11+1 dB, AFS740 AFS122

Codec Mode (kbit/s) 4 (12.2)

Threshold (C/I) TH3 (11 dB)

Hysteresis (C/I)

3 (7.4)
2 (5.9) 1 (4.75)

TH2 (7 dB)
TH1 (4 dB)

H3 (1 dB)
H2 (1 dB) H1 (1 dB)

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Codec mode adaptation: Threshold and hysteresis


Codec mode

FR12.2 (codec 4)

1dB FRH3

FR7.4 (codec 3)

1dB FRH2

FR5.9 (codec 2) 1dB FRH1 FR4.75 (codec 1)

4dB FRT1

5dB

7dB FRT2

8dB

11dB FRT3

12dB

C/I estimation

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Initial Codec Mode Indicator


Separate parameters for FR and HR:

FR: amrConfigurationFr: initCodecMode (ICMI) (FRI)


Initial codec mode for call set-up and HO 0 = Initial codec mode is defined by the implicit rule provided in GSM 05.09 1 = Initial codec mode is defined by amrConfigurationFr: startMode (FRS)
01: Codec mode 2 10: Codec mode 3

00: Codec mode 1 (most robust within ACS)

HR:

11: Codec mode 4

amrConfigurationHr: initCodecMode (ICMI) (HRI)


amrConfHrStartMode (HRS)

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Slow Link Adaptation


slowAmrLaEnabled (SAL): Y/N

enable slow link adaptation. This is a proprietary algorithm where codec mode changes happen every SACCH period (480ms) instead of as fast as 40ms.

BSC level parameter

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Channel allocation Parameters (Call set-up and Packing/Unpacking)

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IAC (Initial AMR Channel Rate)


initAmrChannelRate (IAC): 1 = Any rate. Channel type allocation defined by taking
into account the currently used information for channel allocation

2 = AMR FR AMR FR is preferred over AMR HR and allocated despite of the values of the currently used information for channel allocation IAC=2 overrides tchRateInternalHo (HRI) parameter

Q3 NAME initAmrChannelRate

Acronymn IAC 1

RANGE / 2

UNIT MML EE

MML Default 1

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Packing/Unpacking Parameters and Channel Rate allocation


BSC level parameters

Q3 NAME btsLoadDepTC HRate btsLoadDepTC HRate

Acronymn HRL HRU 0 0

RANGE ... ... 100 100

UNIT % %

MML E E E E

MML Default 100 0

BTS level parameters


Q3 NAME btsS pLoadDepTC HRate (BTSlevel) btsS pLoadDepTC HRate (BTSlevel) amrHandoverFr amrHandoverHr Acronymn FRL FRU IHRF IHRH 0 0 0 0 RANGE ... ... ... ... 100 100 7 7 UNIT % % MML E Q E Q E H E H MML Default 100 0 0 4

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Channel allocation: Call set-up and handovers


btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL) and btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU) are considered in call set-up and handovers only when IAC=1 HR is to be assigned if free resources go below HRL FR is to be assigned if free resources go above HRU In channel allocation for Handovers, there is an additional parameter that can be used to set further control tchRateInternalHo (HRI) is used to control the speech and channel type changes in handover when IAC=1 If set HRI=1, channel type and speech codec used in source BTS are primarily allocated in the target BTS

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Channel mode adaptation: Additional notes


HRL and HRU are set on BSC level but load evaluation is based on working FR TSLs for CS in individual BTS. Lower limit for FR TCH resources (FRL) and upper limit for FR TCH resources (FRU) are BTS specific parameters. They have priority over (HRL) and (HRU) The feature is disable when set HRU <= HRL or FRU <= FRL Requirements for maximum usage of HR HRU = 99 HRL = 98 IAC = 1 IHRF = 3, RX Qual 0, 1, 2, 3 are required for packing IHRH = 4, Rx Qual 4, 5, 6, 7 triggers unpacking TRIH = 0, no restriction, channel rate selection based on HRI (TCH rate intra-cell handover )

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Other parameters affecting channel allocation in HOs

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amrConflnHandover
amrConflnHandover (ACH BSC LEVEL) 1 = the currently used multirate configuration is preferred 2 = the multirate configuration of target BTS is preferred amrSetGradesEnabl (ASG-BSC LEVEL) Y/N you define whether codec mode set downgrades during internal HOs and upgrades after internal HOs are applied or not

Y = downgrades and upgrades are applied N = downgrades and upgrades are not applied

If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are the same, these 2 parameters has no impact.

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amrConflnHandover
If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are difference (e.g. Talk family BTS supports less codecs than UltraSite and MetroSite), the multirate configuration can be aligned before or after HO. Recommendation amrConflnHandover = 2 amrSetGradesEnabl = Y Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on source side before HO if target BTS support less codec (downgraded, UltraSite Talk family) Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on target side after HO if target BTS support more codec (upgrade, Talk family UltraSite) In order to make it possible to connect unidirectional speech path on target side, the multirate configuration on both sides should be the same (reduce muting period during HO).

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TCH in handover (HRI)


With this parameter you define the traffic channel allocation during BSS internal or external handovers. The parameter controls the target cell selection and the TCH channel rate and speech codec determination in traffic channel allocation.

HRI = 1 Call serving type TCH and speech codec are preferred. The call serving type of speech codec inside the call serving
type of TCH can change.

HRI = 2 Call serving type of TCH and speech codec are preferred for speech

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TCH rate in handover (HRI)


HRI = 3 Channel rate and speech codec changes are totally denied

HRI = 4 Preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred speech codec have to be primarily allocated HRI = 5 ... TCH has to be primarily allocated from the best BTS of thehandover candidate list.

Recommended value = 1 (default) OR 4

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AMR specific Hand-Over and Power Control Parameters

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Power Control Parameters

Separate thresholds for AMR-HR

Different PC thresholds for AMR than for EFR


AMR allows to use more aggressive PC thresholds (1-2 classes lower)

Same voting used as for EFR (px/nx)

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AMR Parameters
AMR PC Control Thresholds - BTS level parameters
Q3 NAME amrPowerC ontrolFr * lower threshold dl Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolHr * lower threshold dl Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolFr * lower threshold ul Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolHr * lower threshold ul Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolFr * upper threshold dl Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolHr * upper threshold dl Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolFr * upper threshold ul Rx Qual* amrPowerC ontrolHr * upper threshold ul Rx Qual* Acronymn LDRF LDRH LURF LURH UDRF UDRH UURF UURH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RANGE ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 UNIT MML E U E U E U E U E U E U E U E U MML Default 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0

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RXQual Handover Parameters


Separate thresholds for AMR-FR than for AMR-HR Different HO thresholds for AMR than for EFR

Same px/nx values used for both AMR and EFR


AMR allows to use more aggressive HO thresholds (1-2 classes lower)

BTS level parameters


Q3 NAME Threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR Threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR Threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR Threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR Acronymn QDRH QDRF QURF QURH 0 0 0 0 RANGE ... ... ... ... 7 7 7 7 UNIT MML E H E H E H E H MML Default 4 4 4 4

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Relation with other HOs: Priority


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Interference (UL or DL) NonBCCHLayerExit Uplink quality Downlink quality AMR unpacking due to UL level HO threshold and UL quality (unpacking is started instead of UL level based HO if both, UL level and UL quality for unpacking triggers) 6. Uplink level 7. AMR unpacking due to DL level HO threshold and DL quality (unpacking is started instead of DL level based HO if both, DL level and DL quality for unpacking triggers)
8. Downlink level 9. MS-BS Distance 10. Turn-around-corner MS

11. Rapid field drop


12. Fast/Slow moving MS 13. Better cell (Power budget HO or Umbrella HO) 14. Load based HO in Common BCCH from BCCH/non-BCCH layer to nonBCCH layer 15. AMR packing 16. AMR unpacking

* Priority applies when criteria are fulfilled at the same time


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