You are on page 1of 55

Chapter 3

Process Capability and Statistical Process Control

Lecture Outline
Basics of Statistical Process Control Control Charts Control Charts for Attributes Control Charts for Variables Control Chart Patterns SPC with Excel and OM Tools Process Capability

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-2

Statistical Process Control (SPC)


Statistical Process Control
monitoring production process to detect and prevent poor quality

Sample
subset of items produced to use for inspection

Control Charts
process is within statistical control limits

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-3

Process Variability
Random
inherent in a process depends on equipment and machinery, engineering, operator, and system of measurement natural occurrences

Non-Random
special causes identifiable and correctable include equipment out of adjustment, defective materials, changes in parts or materials, broken machinery or equipment, operator fatigue or poor work methods, or errors due to lack of training

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-4

SPC in Quality Management


SPC uses Is the process in control? Identify problems in order to make improvements Contribute to the TQM goal of continuous improvement

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-5

Quality Measures: Attributes and Variables


Attribute A characteristic which is evaluated with a discrete response good/bad; yes/no; correct/incorrect Variable measure A characteristic that is continuous and can be measured Weight, length, voltage, volume

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-6

SPC Applied to Services


Nature of defects is different in services Service defect is a failure to meet customer requirements Monitor time and customer satisfaction

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-7

SPC Applied to Services


Hospitals
timeliness & quickness of care, staff responses to requests, accuracy of lab tests, cleanliness, courtesy, accuracy of paperwork, speed of admittance & checkouts

Grocery stores
waiting time to check out, frequency of out-of-stock items, quality of food items, cleanliness, customer complaints, checkout register errors

Airlines
flight delays, lost luggage & luggage handling, waiting time at ticket counters & check-in, agent & flight attendant courtesy, accurate flight information, cabin cleanliness & maintenance

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-8

SPC Applied to Services


Fast-food restaurants
waiting time for service, customer complaints, cleanliness, food quality, order accuracy, employee courtesy

Catalogue-order companies
order accuracy, operator knowledge & courtesy, packaging, delivery time, phone order waiting time

Insurance companies
billing accuracy, timeliness of claims processing, agent availability & response time

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-9

Where to Use Control Charts


Process
Has a tendency to go out of control Is particularly harmful and costly if it goes out of control

Examples
At beginning of process because of waste to begin production process with bad supplies Before a costly or irreversible point, after which product is difficult to rework or correct Before and after assembly or painting operations that might cover defects Before the outgoing final product or service is delivered

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-10

Control Charts
A graph that monitors process quality Control limits
upper and lower bands of a control chart

Attributes chart
p-chart c-chart

Variables chart
mean (x bar chart) range (R-chart)

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-11

Process Control Chart


Out of control Upper control limit Process average Lower control limit

10

Sample number

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-12

Normal Distribution
Probabilities for Z= 2.00 and Z = 3.00

95% 99.74% -3 -2 -1 =0 1 2 3

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-13

A Process Is in Control If
1. no sample points outside limits 2. most points near process average 3. about equal number of points above and below centerline 4. points appear randomly distributed

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-14

Control Charts for Attributes


p-chart
uses portion defective in a sample

c-chart
uses number of defects (non-conformities) in a sample

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-15

p-Chart
UCL = p + zp LCL = p - zp
z p p = number of standard deviations from process average = sample proportion defective; estimates process mean = standard deviation of sample proportion p(1 - p)
p = n

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-16

Construction of p-Chart
SAMPLE # NUMBER OF DEFECTIVES PROPORTION DEFECTIVE

1 2 3 : : 20

6 0 4 : : 18 200

.06 .00 .04 : : .18

20 samples of 100 pairs of jeans

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-17

Construction of p-Chart
p=
total defectives total sample observations = 200 / 20(100) = 0.10 0.10(1 - 0.10) 100

UCL = p + z UCL = 0.190 LCL = p - z LCL = 0.010

p(1 - p) = 0.10 + 3 n

p(1 - p) = 0.10 - 3 n

0.10(1 - 0.10) 100

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-18

Construction of p-Chart
0.20 0.18 0.16 Proportion defective 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 2 LCL = 0.010 4 6 8 10 12 Sample number 14 16 18 20 p = 0.10 UCL = 0.190

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-19

p-Chart in Excel
Click on Insert then Charts to construct control chart I4 + 3*SQRT(I4*(1-I4)/100) I4 - 3*SQRT(I4*(1-I4)/100)

Column values copied from I5 and I6


Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-20

c-Chart
UCL = c + zc LCL = c - zc
where c = number of defects per sample

c =

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-21

c-Chart
Number of defects in 15 sample rooms
SAMPLE NUMBER OF DEFECTS

1 2 3

12 8 16

c=

190 = 12.67 15 12.67

: :
15

: :
15 190

UCL = c + zc = 12.67 + 3 = 23.35 LCL = c - zc = 12.67 - 3 = 1.99

12.67

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-22

c-Chart
24 UCL = 23.35 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 LCL = 1.99

Number of defects

c = 12.67

10

12

14

16

Sample number

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-23

Control Charts for Variables


Range chart ( R-Chart )
Plot sample range (variability)

Mean chart ( x -Chart )


Plot sample averages

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-24

x-bar Chart: Known


= UCL = x + z x= LCL = x - z x - + x + ... + x x1 - 2 k k = process standard deviation x = standard deviation of sample means =/ n k = number of samples (subgroups) n = sample size (number of observations) Where = X=

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-25

x-bar Chart Example: Known


Observations(Slip-Ring Diameter, cm) n Sample k 1 2 3 4 5

We know = .08
Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-26

x-bar Chart Example: Known


= 50.09 X = _____ = 5.01 10 = UCL = x + z x = 5.01 + 3(.08 / 10) = 5.09 = LCL = x - z x= 5.01 - 3(.08 / 10) = 4.93

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-27

x-bar Chart Example: Unknown


UCL = x + A2R
where = x = average of the sample means _ R = average range value = _

LCL = x - A2R

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-28

Control Chart Factors

Sample Size n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Factor for X-chart A2 1.880 1.023 0.729 0.577 0.483 0.419 0.373 0.337 0.308 0.285 0.266 0.249 0.235 0.223 0.212 0.203 0.194 0.187 0.180 0.173 0.167 0.162 0.157 0.153 D3 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.076 0.136 0.184 0.223 0.256 0.283 0.307 0.328 0.347 0.363 0.378 0.391 0.404 0.415 0.425 0.435 0.443 0.452 0.459 D4 3.267 2.575 2.282 2.114 2.004 1.924 1.864 1.816 1.777 1.744 1.717 1.693 1.672 1.653 1.637 1.622 1.609 1.596 1.585 1.575 1.565 1.557 1.548 1.541

Factors for R-chart

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-29

x-bar Chart Example: Unknown


OBSERVATIONS (SLIP- RING DIAMETER, CM) SAMPLE k 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 5.02 5.01 4.99 5.03 4.95 4.97 5.05 5.09 5.14 5.01 2 5.01 5.03 5.00 4.91 4.92 5.06 5.01 5.10 5.10 4.98 3 4.94 5.07 4.93 5.01 5.03 5.06 5.10 5.00 4.99 5.08 4 4.99 4.95 4.92 4.98 5.05 4.96 4.96 4.99 5.08 5.07 5 4.96 4.96 4.99 4.89 5.01 5.03 4.99 5.08 5.09 4.99 x 4.98 5.00 4.97 4.96 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.05 5.08 5.03 R 0.08 0.12 0.08 0.14 0.13 0.10 0.14 0.11 0.15 0.10

Totals 50.09 1.15

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-30

x-bar Chart Example: Unknown


_ R= R ____ = k 1.15 ____ 10 = 0.115

x 50.09 = = ___ = _____ = 5.01 cm x 10 k _ = UCL = x + A2R = 5.01 + (0.58)(0.115) = 5.08

LCL = x - A2R = 5.01 - (0.58)(0.115) = 4.94

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-31

x- bar Chart Example


Mean

5.10 5.08 5.06 5.04 5.02 5.00 4.98 4.96 4.94 4.92 | 1 | 2 | 3 | | | | 4 5 6 7 Sample number | 8 | 9 | 10 LCL = 4.94 = = 5.01 x UCL = 5.08

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-32

R- Chart
UCL = D4R R= R k LCL = D3R

Where R = range of each sample k = number of samples (sub groups)

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-33

R-Chart Example
OBSERVATIONS (SLIP- RING DIAMETER, CM) SAMPLE k 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 5.02 5.01 4.99 5.03 4.95 4.97 5.05 5.09 5.14 5.01 2 5.01 5.03 5.00 4.91 4.92 5.06 5.01 5.10 5.10 4.98 3 4.94 5.07 4.93 5.01 5.03 5.06 5.10 5.00 4.99 5.08 4 4.99 4.95 4.92 4.98 5.05 4.96 4.96 4.99 5.08 5.07 5 4.96 4.96 4.99 4.89 5.01 5.03 4.99 5.08 5.09 4.99 x 4.98 5.00 4.97 4.96 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.05 5.08 5.03 R 0.08 0.12 0.08 0.14 0.13 0.10 0.14 0.11 0.15 0.10

Totals 50.09 1.15

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-34

R-Chart Example
_ UCL = D4R = 2.11(0.115) = 0.243 _ LCL = D3R = 0(0.115) = 0 Retrieve chart factors D3 and D4

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-35

R-Chart Example
0.28 0.24 0.20 Range 0.16 0.12 0.08 0.04 0 LCL = 0 | | | 1 2 3 | | | | 4 5 6 7 Sample number | 8 | 9 | 10 R = 0.115 UCL = 0.243

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-36

X-bar and R charts Excel & OM Tools

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-37

Using x- bar and R-Charts Together


Process average and process variability must be in control Samples can have very narrow ranges, but sample averages might be beyond control limits Or, sample averages may be in control, but ranges might be out of control An R-chart might show a distinct downward trend, suggesting some nonrandom cause is reducing variation

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-38

Control Chart Patterns


Run
sequence of sample values that display same characteristic

Pattern test
determines if observations within limits of a control chart display a nonrandom pattern

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-39

Control Chart Patterns


To identify a pattern look for:
8 consecutive points on one side of the center line 8 consecutive points up or down 14 points alternating up or down 2 out of 3 consecutive points in zone A (on one side of center line) 4 out of 5 consecutive points in zone A or B (on one side of center line)

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-40

Control Chart Patterns


UCL UCL

LCL Sample observations consistently below the center line

LCL Sample observations consistently above the center line

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-41 3-41

Control Chart Patterns


UCL UCL

LCL Sample observations consistently increasing

LCL Sample observations consistently decreasing

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-42

Zones for Pattern Tests


UCL Zone A Zone B
= 1 sigma = x + 1 (A2R) 3 = 3 sigma = x + A2R = 2 sigma = x + 2 (A2R) 3

Process average

Zone C Zone C Zone B

= x = 1 sigma = x - 1 (A2R) 3 = 2 sigma = x - 2 (A2R) 3

Zone A LCL
| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13

= 3 sigma = x - A2R

Sample number
Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-43

Performing a Pattern Test


SAMPLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x 4.98 5.00 4.95 4.96 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.05 5.08 5.03 ABOVE/BELOW B B B B B A A A A UP/DOWN U D D U U U U U D ZONE B C A A C C C B A B

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-44

Sample Size Determination


Attribute charts require larger sample sizes 50 to 100 parts in a sample Variable charts require smaller samples 2 to 10 parts in a sample

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-45

Process Capability
Compare natural variability to design variability Natural variability What we measure with control charts Process mean = 8.80 oz, Std dev. = 0.12 oz Tolerances Design specifications reflecting product requirements Net weight = 9.0 oz 0.5 oz Tolerances are 0.5 oz

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-46

Process Capability

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-47

Process Capability

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-48

Process Capability Ratio


Cp = = tolerance range process range upper spec limit - lower spec limit 6

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-49

Computing Cp

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-50

Process Capability Index


= x - lower specification limit 3

Cpk = minimum

= upper specification limit - x 3

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-51

Computing Cpk
Net weight specification = 9.0 oz 0.5 oz Process mean = 8.80 oz Process standard deviation = 0.12 oz
= x - lower specification limit , 3 = upper specification limit - x 3 8.80 - 8.50 9.50 - 8.80 , = 0.83 3(0.12) 3(0.12)

Cpk = minimum

= minimum

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-52

Process Capability With Excel

=(D6-D7)/(6*D8)

See formula bar

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-53

Process Capability With OM Tools

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-54

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein.

Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3-55