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HACCP Implementation IFSQN Click to edit Master subtitle style Guide

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Introduction to HACCP
HACCP is the acronym for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. The concept was originally developed in the 1960s by NASA in association with the Pillsbury Corporation. The HACCP control system was designed to ensure food safety for the manned space programme. Its primary aim was to prevent food safety problems and effectively 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com 22

Introduction to HACCP
The principles of HACCP can be used for all product and hazard types. The HACCP system and guidelines for its application were defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the Codex Alimentarius Code of Practice. This Commission implements the Joint Food and Agriculture www.ifsqn.com Organization (FAO) of the 6/8/12 33

Introduction to HACCP
It is important to demonstrate Management Commitment to your HACCP Management System. All leading food companies should be committed to producing safe and legal products in line with legislation and to continuously improve standards of hygiene, quality and safety in relation to both our product range and the environment in which the 6/8/12 44 products are www.ifsqn.com manufactured.

HACCP Preliminary Steps

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Define your Quality and Food Safety Policies and Objectives See next 2 slides for examples Assemble the HACCP team, with at least one team member who is HACCP trained Make a description of the food, how it is prepared or cooked and the storage and distribution process Identify the intended use of the products Identify consumers of the products Confirm the HACCP Scope www.ifsqn.com 55 Consider the process and draw a flow

Preliminary Steps 1. Example Food Quality and Safety Policy

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The companys quality and food safety policy is to provide competitive


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Preliminary Steps 1. Example Food Quality and Safety Objectives


The Company Quality Objectives are:
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To maintain an effective Quality Management System complying with International Standard ISO9001:2008. To maintain a standard of manufacturing that complies with BRC Global standard for Food Safety Issue 5 2008* To provide competitive products and services of the highest standards of performance and reliability, thus enhancing the Company's reputation with customers. To meet the company quality objectives and ensure compliance with relevant customer, statutory and regulatory requirements. ** To endeavour, at all times, to maximize customer satisfaction. To pro-actively promote and encourage a culture of continuous improvement within the company

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*The British Retail Consortium Technical Standard for Companies Supplying Retailer Branded Food Products requires the adoption of HACCP ** HACCP principles have been incorporated into specific UK regulations

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Preliminary Steps - 2. Assemble the HACCP team including at least one person who is HACCP trained
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It is important to have more than one person working on the development of HACCP system. HACCP is an overall process control system and it takes a variety of different kinds of knowledge and experience to develop a good system. You should consider including on your HACCP team, some resources who know about HACCP process control systems and at least one person who has been trained and successfully completed a www.ifsqn.com 88 course in applying the seven principles.

Preliminary Steps - 2. Assemble the HACCP team including at least one person who is HACCP trained

A core team should be utilised within the company to conduct HACCP studies. This core team should be supplemented by other staff when specific areas or products are being analysed. The Food Safety (HACCP) Team membership should include where possible personnel from a variety of disciplines.www.ifsqn.com The Team Leader is 6/8/12 99

Preliminary Steps - 3. Make a description of the product, how it is processed or manufactured and the storage and distribution process
A full description of the product should be drawn up, including relevant safety information such as: composition, physical/chemical structure (including Aw, pH, etc.), microcidal/static treatments (heat-treatment, freezing, brining, smoking, etc.), packaging, durability and storage conditions and method of distribution. Consider the following: i. What is the name of the product? ii. How is the product to be used? iii. How is it processed or manufactured? iv. What type of packaging is used? v. Where is the product stored? vi. What is the length of shelf life of the product at a what 6/8/12 temperature? www.ifsqn.com 1010

Preliminary Steps - 4. Identify the intended use of the product The intended use should be based on the expected uses of the food by the end user or consumer. Consider the intended use of the food: i. Is the product intended as an ingredient for further cooking? ii. Is the product ready to eat?

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Preliminary Steps - 5. Identify consumers of the products Vulnerable groups of the population may have to be considered. Consider the consumers of the food: i. Is the food intended for babies or infants, children or adults? ii. Is the food intended for a wide spectrum of the population? iii. Is the food likely to be consumed by high risk groups such as babies or the elderly?
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Preliminary Steps 6. Confirm the HACCP Scope Define which products are within the scope of your HACCPs study. Similar products with the same process can usually be grouped when identifying the potential risks and control measures for their safe preparation. Define the scope of the process the HACCPs system covers:
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Supplier Approval Food Delivery Storage Food Preparation Cooking Reheating Hot Holding www.ifsqn.com 1313

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Preliminary Steps - 7. Consider the process and draw a flow diagram


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Consider how the product is manufactured. Draw a flow diagram. A flow diagram is a simple schematic of the process you use in your factory to produce the product. It is important that the flow diagram is clear and is an accurate representation of the process used to make the product in your factory.

See our example process flow diagram on the next few slides
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Preliminary Steps - 7. Sample flow diagram

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Preliminary Steps - 7. Sample flow diagram

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Enter your Process Flow Steps into the Food Service HACCP Calculator

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Preliminary Steps - 8. Confirm the flow diagram is correct by following the process The best means to make sure your flow diagram is accurate is to have the HACCP team confirm it is accurate by walking through the food service facility and making sure all the steps in the process are included in the flow diagram. The HACCP team should confirm the processing operation against the flow diagram during all stages and hours of operation and amend the flow diagram where appropriate. This is an important step as it is a fundamental requirement that the flow diagram is correct and complete.
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Preliminary Steps - 9. Confirm your Prerequisites Pre-requisites are taken into consideration when conducting your Hazard Analysis. You should already have or if not implement procedures to control the safe preparation of food: Purchasing n Equipment n Preventative Maintenance programme in place n Calibration programme of equipment in place n Personal Hygiene n Training 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com 1919 n Chemical Control
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HACCP Study The Seven Principles

PRINCIPLE 1 Conduct a hazard analysis. PRINCIPLE 2 Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs). PRINCIPLE 3 Establish critical limit(s). PRINCIPLE 4 Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP. PRINCIPLE 5 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com 2020 Establish the corrective action to be taken

HACCP Study PRINCIPLE 1 Conduct a hazard analysis


Taking your confirmed process flow diagram your HACCP team will now need to conduct a Hazard Analysis for each step to identify the threats to human health, which might be introduced into products as they are produced. The hazards are grouped into three categories: Biological (including microbiological), Chemical, and Physical. n Biological hazards are living organisms that can make food unsafe to eat. Biological hazards may be bacterial, parasitical, or viral. n Chemical hazards may be the result of something naturally occurring in ingredients or food or accidentally added during the process. Harmful chemicals have been associated with both acute and 6/8/12 chronic illness.www.ifsqn.com 2121

HACCP PRINCIPLE 1 - Conduct a hazard analysis


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Biological hazards can be associated with the raw materials from which products are made and may be introduced during the process by people, the environment or the process itself. Identifying the biological hazards to which your facility might be subjected is an important part of the hazard analysis so it is important that someone with microbiological knowledge is on your team. Some of the major pathogens that may be associated with food products are Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Staphylococcus aureus.

For a list of Hazards in our HACCP Manual. You can add and edit this list and use any other Hazards you have 6/8/12 identified in your HACCP plan. www.ifsqn.com 2222
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HACCP PRINCIPLE 1 - Conduct a hazard analysis Chemical Hazards


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Naturally occurring chemical hazards include aflatoxins, mycotoxins and shellfish toxins. They can be present in food naturally or as the result of growth of micro-organisms in the food. Added chemical hazards are those which are usually unintentionally added to ingredients or food at any stage in the process from producing the raw ingredients to delivery of the product. The range of chemical hazards is very broad and includes hazards such as pesticides, heavy metals, solvents, lubricants and cleaning chemicals. For a list of Hazards in our HACCP Manual. You can add and edit this list and use any other Hazards you have identified in your HACCP plan. www.ifsqn.com 2323

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HACCP PRINCIPLE 1 - Conduct a hazard analysis Physical Hazards


A physical hazard is a physical component of a food that is unexpected and may cause illness or injury to the person consuming the food. Foreign materials such as glass, metal, or plastic are typical physical hazards in products through lack of control while the food was being produced. n Physical hazards in foods can come from a number of sources: - ingredient contamination such as stones or insects in fruit - poorly maintained environment and equipment such as cracked perspex guarding or loose bolts - contamination from packaging materials - contamination by employees such as with hair by failing to follow hygiene procedures
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For a list of Hazards in our HACCP Manual. You can add and edit this list and use any other Hazards you have 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com 2424 identified in your HACCP plan.
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HACCP PRINCIPLE 1 - Conduct a hazard analysis


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This first step in identifying hazards which might be associated with your production process might be considered a brainstorming session. Your HACCP team should use the description of the product, how it is handled, prepared, cooked and the storage and distribution process, the intended use of the products, consumers of the products, the HACCP Scope and flow diagram from the preliminary steps, and systematically think about what could occur at each step in the process. Our HACCP HAZARD ANALYSIS Checklist is a checklist of questions to help your team.
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HACCP PRINCIPLE 1 - Conduct a hazard analysis


The Food Service HACCP Calculator has a list of questions which will help you conduct your hazard analysis

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HACCP PRINCIPLE 1 - Conduct a hazard analysis


The next step in performing a hazard analysis is for the HACCP team to consider the list all of the hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur at each step from receipt of ingredients until the point of consumption and identify which hazards are of such a nature that their elimination or reduction to acceptable levels is essential to the production of a safe food. In conducting the hazard analysis, wherever possible the following should be included: n the probability of hazards occurring n the severity of hazards by their adverse health effects n the qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of the presence of hazards n survival or multiplication of microorganisms of concern 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com 2727 n production or persistence in foods of toxins, chemicals

HACCP PRINCIPLE 1 - Conduct a hazard analysis


Using our Food Service HACCP Calculator consider which Hazards are significant for each step. You can select a hazard from the drop down lists or edit and chose your own For significant hazards decide if control measures are in place for the hazard.

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Select your Hazards on the HACCP Plan in the Food Service HACCP Calculator

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HACCP PRINCIPLE 1 - Conduct a hazard analysis When developing your hazard analysis it is important to keep supporting documentation such as regulations, regulatory authority guidelines, industry code of practice and historical information about the process for the decisions reached by the team. When applying HACCP to a given operation, consideration should be given to steps preceding and following the specified operation. The HACCP Calculator will help you with a due diligence defence in demonstrating that you have conducted a hazard analysis.
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HACCP PRINCIPLE 1 - Conduct a hazard analysis

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PRINCIPLE 2 - Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs)


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HACCP Principle 2 is to identify the critical control points in the process. A CCP is a step in a food process at which control can be applied to can be prevent, eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels a food safety hazard. Your HACCP team has identified hazards in the raw materials and the ingredients you use as well as in the steps of your process. You will need to decide if the hazards at this step represent a critical control point.
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PRINCIPLE 2 - Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs)


Many critical control points are commonly applied in food processing and production. Typical critical control points include:
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Chilling or Freezing to temperatures that minimize microbial growth Cooking to specific temperatures for exact times in order to destroy microbial pathogens Product Acidification such as the addition of cultures or chemicals to reduce pH Product Drying or water reduction to remove available water Processes such as sealing Addition of Preservatives to prevent microbial growth Metal Detection Filtration

There are many more possible CCPs, not every process is the same and that is why it is so important to conduct your own Hazard Analysis. You can if you chose use the decision tree to decide if your critical control points.

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HACCP Decision Tree

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PRINCIPLE 2 - Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs) using the decision tree

You can follow the decision tree questions : Q1 Are control measures in places for the hazard? Q2 Does the step eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level? Q3 Could contamination occur at unacceptable levels or increase to 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com 3535 unacceptable levels?

Establishing critical control points, operational prerequisite programmes and prerequisite programmes

Based on your hazard analysis and assessment you need to decide which hazards are controlled by the HACCP plan, by operational prerequisite programmes and by prerequisite programmes refer to FSM 016 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System Procedure
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Establishing critical control points, operational prerequisite programmes and prerequisite programmes
Step Number Step Name Hazards Identified Pro Sev Sign babi erit ifica lity y nce

Delivery of Ingredient A

Bone

Delivery of Ingredient A

Campylobacter spp.

Delivery of Ingredient A

Contamination with Bacteria from pests

Delivery of Ingredient A

Pesticides Salmonella spp. (S. typhimurium, S. enteriditis) Bacteria (spore-forming) General

Delivery of Ingredient A

Delivery of Ingredient A

Delivery of Ingredient A

Pest control chemicals

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Establishing critical control points, operational prerequisite programmes and prerequisite programmes We suggest you analyse your hazards to assess the significance then apply the following rules: Hazards not considered significant controlled by Prerequisite Programmes Hazards considered significant but not critical control points controlled by Operational Prerequisite Programmes Significant Hazards at Critical Control Points controlled in the HACCP Plan
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PRINCIPLE 3 - Establish critical limit(s).

HACCP Principle 3 requires your HACCP team to establish critical limits for each Preventive Measure you will carry out at each CCP. This step involves establishing a criteria that must be met for each preventive measure associated with a CCP. ISO 22000 also requires you to do this for operational PRPs. 3939 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com

PRINCIPLE 3 - Establish critical limit(s).

Critical limits are exact and specific the limits required for food safety using the preventive measures put in place at CCPs. A critical limit can be an upper limit where a set amount or level cannot be exceeded. A critical limit can also be a lower limit where a minimum amount is required to produce the safe effect.www.ifsqn.com 6/8/12 4040

PRINCIPLE 3 - Establish critical limit(s).

Supporting validation documentation can consist of information from:


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Regulatory limits Industry Code of Practice Guidelines Scientific journals In-house data

The HACCP documentation must identify:


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The hazard and the level of 4141 hazard www.ifsqn.com

PRINCIPLE 3 - Establish critical limit(s).

When deciding what your critical limits should be, there are several sources to consider. First are the regulatory requirements, which apply to your processes. These must be met. For example hot display food must be held above 63 C. You need to establish a critical limit for every preventive measure you intend to apply at your CCPs. The HACCP Calculator has a database of preventative measures/critical limits that you can chose.
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PRINCIPLE 3 - Establish critical limit(s) for each Preventative Measure

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PRINCIPLE 4 - Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP.

HACCP principle 4 is the need to establish monitoring procedures. Monitoring procedures are those which measure the process at the CCP. n Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or observation of a CCP relative to its critical limits. The monitoring procedures must be able to detect loss of control at the CCP. n The most commonly recognised monitoring procedures are from 6/8/12 instruments but can be employee checks www.ifsqn.com 4444 such as inspecting the documentation
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PRINCIPLE 4 - Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP.


Monitoring should ideally provide information in time to make adjustments to ensure control of the process to prevent exceeding the critical limits. Where possible, process adjustments should be made when monitoring results indicate a trend towards loss of control at a CCP. The adjustments should be taken before a critical limit is breached occurs. Records of the results of all monitoring procedures must be maintained for due diligence purposes. HACCP team will need to decide what will be the monitoring procedures and how frequently they will be performed. They must be performed at a sufficient frequency to ensure that the process is under control. Advice from people with knowledge of statistical process control will be important in 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com 4545 making your decisions about frequency.

PRINCIPLE 4 - Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP.

Monitoring procedures will need to be effective because of the potentially serious consequences of loss of control Training of Employees in monitoring procedures and CCPs should be undertaken for each preventive measure or control. They should fully understand the purpose and importance of monitoring and accurately reporting monitoring activities and results. Documents for the recording of measurement should clearly indicate the control limits so that an employee does not have to refer elsewhere for the critical limits. You can select a monitoring procedure from the database on the HACCP calculator.
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PRINCIPLE 4 - Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP.

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PRINCIPLE 5 - Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control.
HACCP Principle 5 - Establish corrective actions to be taken when monitoring shows that there is a deviation from a critical limit. Your Corrective action plan needs ensure: n the cause of the deviation has been identified and eliminated n the CCP reverts to a controlled state after the corrective action has been taken n measures to prevent recurrence of the deviation have been established n product is quarantined until it is established that it is safe.
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PRINCIPLE 5 - Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control.
For each CCP the HACCP team needs to determine the corrective actions that employees will follow when there is a deviation from a critical limit. Planned corrective actions should clearly: n Define who to inform when a problem occurs n Allocate responsibility for dealing with the food and for deciding what to do with food which might have been affected n Define responsibility for investigating the cause n Define your procedure for getting the process back in control and preventing a recurrence n Allocate responsibility for approving that the corrective actions taken are effective n Allocate responsibility for recording the corrective 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com 4949 action taken

PRINCIPLE 5 - Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control.

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PRINCIPLE 6 - Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application.
HACCP principle number 6 is to establish effective recordkeeping procedures that document the HACCP system. n All records and documents associated with monitoring CCPs must be signed by the person(s) doing the monitoring and by a person responsible for reviewing HACCP documentation. n It is prudent to have documented procedures for each control measure for every critical control point and a corresponding record. n Procedures and records can be combined so that several monitoring results can be documented on one record. n ISO 22000 also requires you to do this for operational 6/8/12 PRPs. www.ifsqn.com 5151
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PRINCIPLE 6 - Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records

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PRINCIPLE 7 - Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively.
Your HACCP team needs to decide on what procedures the plant will perform to verify that the HACCP system is working effectively. n Verification uses methods, procedures, or tests in addition to those used in monitoring to see whether the HACCP system is in compliance with the HACCP plan. n The is also likely to be scientific or technical justification or documented basis for the system which should be reviewed. n Auditing monitoring activities, corrective actions, and reviewing HACCP records to ensure that the HACCP plan is working effectively. n Annual review of the plan to consider whether the plan is adequate and up to date with any regulatory or statutory changes. 6/8/12 We suggest you use the HACCP Verification form which www.ifsqn.com 5353 n uses your HACCP plan as a template to audit your
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PRINCIPLE 7 - Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively.

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PRINCIPLE 7 - Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively.
HACCP verification can be carried out by internal and external auditing. HACCP verification audits will confirm:
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the controls are in place at each critical control point that the product is meeting the critical limits the monitoring procedure is correct and being followed that corrective actions are being taken in the event of the criteria for acceptance not being met

When audit findings show that the criteria for acceptance is not being met this is escalated to the Food Service Manager who arranges a prompt review with the HACCP team. 6/8/12 www.ifsqn.com 5555